Science vocab chapter 8

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dilanf
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Science vocab chapter 8
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2014-01-12 17:15:03
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Science vocab chapter 8
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  1. Electromagnetic radiation
    • Radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves that travel at
    • the speed of light (such as visible light, radio waves, and X rays)

    E.g. visible light, radio waves, X rays
  2. Refracting telescope
    A telescope that uses a lens to collect light from an object

    E.g. an average telescope used by anyone
  3. Reflecting telescope
    • A telescope that uses a mirror to collect light from an
    • object

    • E.g. usually used by astronomer or people very interested in
    • stars
  4. Satellite
    • An artificial object or vehicle that orbit Earth, the Moon,
    • or other celestial bodies; also, a celestial body that orbits another of larger
    • size

    E.g. the moon, Anik 1, sputnik
  5. Orbiters
    Observatories that orbit other celestial objects

    E.g. MCO, Mars polar lander
  6. Solar nebula theory
    • The theory that describes how stars and planets form from
    • contracting, spinning disks of gas and dust
  7. Star
    • A celestial body made of hot gases, mainly hydrogen and some
    • helium

    E.g. the sun
  8. Nebula
    • A vast cloud of gas and dust, which may be the birthplace of
    • stars and planets

    • E.g. in solar nebula theory, nebulas created stars and
    • planets
  9. Protostar
    Hot, condensed object at the centre of a nebula

    E.g. the sun was a protostar 5 billion years ago
  10. Nuclear fusion
    • The process of energy in which hydrogen nuclei combine to
    • form helium nuclei

    E.g. this process stabilizes a star
  11. Photosphere
    The surface layer of the sun

    E.g. the bubbling lava part
  12. Sunspot
    An area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere

    E.g. much cooler than the rest of the star
  13. Solar wind
    • A stream of fast moving charged particles ejected by the Sun
    • into the solar system

    E.g. from a solar flare
  14. Solar flare
    • An event where magnetic fields explosively eject intense
    • streams of charged particles into space

    E.g. creates solar wind
  15. Importance of the Sun
    The sun gives us energy to drive most processes on Earth

    E.g. heating the earth, fueling photosynthesis, weather
  16. Luminosity
    • A stars total energy output per second; its power in joules
    • per second (J/s)

    E.g. the sun’s luminosity is 4 x 1026
  17. Absolute
    magnitude
    • The magnitude of a star that we would observe if the star
    • were placed at 32.6 light-years

    E.g. brightness
  18. Spectroscope
    • An optical instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow
    • beam of light and usually projects the spectrum onto a photographic plate or a
    • digital detector

    E.g. some look like little black telescope-like tubes
  19. Spectral lines
    • Certain specific wave lengths within a spectrum
    • characterized by lines; spectral lines identify specific chemical elements

    E.g. show on the visible light spectrum
  20. Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
    A graph that compares the properties of stars

    E.g. this contains the main sequence
  21. Main sequence
    • A narrow band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs
    • diagonally from the upper left (bright

    E.g. the sun is in the main sequence
  22. White dwarf
    A small, dim, hot star

    • E.g. what results after a low or intermediate mass star
    • evolves
  23. Supernova
    • A massive explosion in which the entire outer portion of a
    • star is blown off

    • E.g. can result in black holes, new planets and stars, and
    • neutron stars
  24. Neutron star
    A star so dense that only neutrons can exist in its core

    E.g. gives off beams of light, like a light house
  25. How low-mass stars evolve
    • Low-mass stars burn off their fuel much slower than any
    • other star, this results in when it burns it all off, it evaporates and becomes
    • a white dwarf
  26. How intermediate-mass stars evolve
    • Intermediate-mass stars evolve by constantly growing bigger
    • due to it burning its fuel faster, and becomes a bigger star, such as a red
    • giant, and eventually grows so big that the layers expanded my the heat
    • dissipate in space and becomes a white dwarf
  27. How high-mass stars evolve
    • High-mass stars evolve when their fuel runs low and it gets
    • hot, heavier elements form, and eventually the star becomes a supergiant, which
    • results in a violent explosion, a super nova
  28. Black hole
    • The remnant of a supernova explosion with a gravitational field
    • so strong nothing can escape its pull

    E.g. what is supposedly in the centre of the galaxy

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