English-Grammar terms

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English-Grammar terms
2014-01-12 22:24:43

english 11 grammar terms
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  1. 0. Subject
    what is being discussed in a sentence or clause
  2. 1. Sentence
    word group with subject, verb, and complete thought
  3. 2. Modify
    to describe, explain, or qualify a word
  4. 3. Noun
    • a. person, place, thing, or idea
    • b. nouns name
  5. 4. Pronoun
    word that replaces a noun or another pronoun
  6. 5. Antecedent
    word replaced by a pronoun
  7. 6. Verb
    • a. (predicate) shows action or
    • b. helps make a statement (linking)
    • c. what is said about the subject
  8. 7. Adjective
    • a. modifies (describes) a noun or pronoun
    • b. tells which one, what kind, how many
  9. 8. Complement (completer)
    completes the meaning of a sentence, clause, or phrase
  10. 9.Direct Object
    • a. a noun or pronoun that usually follows an action verb 
    • b. receives or shows result of action
    • c.answers the "what?" or "whom?"
  11. 10. Indirect Object
    • a. noun or pronoun that follows an action verb
    • b. precedes the direct object 
    • c. answers "to whom?/for whom?" or "to what?/for what?"
  12. 11. Object Complement
    • a. noun or adjective that follows a direct object
    • b. renames or modifies (describes) the direct object
  13. 12. Predicate Nominative
    • a. noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb
    • b. renames the subject
  14. 13. Predicate Adjective
    • a. adjective that follows a linking verb
    • b. modifies (describes) the subject
  15. 14. Conjunction
    joins words or word groups
  16. 15. Adverb
    • a. modifies (describes) a verb, adjective, or another adverb
    • b. tells how, where, when, why, how much (to what extent)
  17. 16. Preposition
    • a. word that relates a noun or pronoun (the object) to another word
    • b. BAT (before, behind, at, after, to, toward, etc.)
  18. 17. Object of the Preposition
    the noun or pronoun that a preposition relates to another word
  19. 18. Interjection
    sudden exclamation
  20. 19. Phrase
    • a. word group WITHOUT subject and verb
    • b. cannot stand alone
    • c. functions as a single part of speech
  21. 20. Appositive
    • a. a noun or pronoun that (usually) follows another noun or pronoun
    • b. identifies or explains it
  22. 21.Verbal
    • a. a word that looks like a verb but isn't 
    • b. gerund, infinitive, participle
  23. 22. Verbal Phrase
    a verbal plus complements and modifiers
  24. 23. Gerund
    verbal noun that ends in -ing
  25. 24. Participle
    • a. vebal adjective
    • b. present ends in -ing
    • c. past generally ends in -d, -ed, -n, -en, or -t (dent ned)
  26. 25. Infinitive
    • a. verb preceded by to
    • b. function as a noun or modifier (adjective/adverb)
  27. 26. Clause
    • a. word group WITH subject and verb
    • b. independent has subject, verb, complete thought
    • c. subordinate (dependent) has subject, verb, but NO complete thought 
    • d.subordinate functions as a single part of speech
  28. 27. Relative Pronoun
    • a. begins a noun or adjective clause 
    • b. who, whom, whose, which, that, what (and their other forms)
  29. 28. subordinating Conjunction
    • a. begins an adverb clause (beware--- some also function as prepositions)
    • b. (ABSUW) as soon as    before    since    until
    • when    although    because    so that    unless    
    • where    ETC.
  30. 29.S----V----C Diagram
    • NADA
    •                                                            DO 
    •                                                            IO/DO
    •                   (ACTION)                           DO/OC
    • S-----------------V---------------------------------
    •                  (LINKING)                           PN
    •                                                            PA
    •                                                       (adverbial)
  31. 30. Goal Post Chart
    • 8 POS         NFS        COMPS 
    • N                SUB       DO
    • PRO            DO         IO
    • VER            IO          OC
    • ADJ            OC          PN
    • ADV           PN           PA
    • PREP          OBJ        (adverbials)
    • INT            APP
    • CON       completer