chapter 1 Anatomy

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
256221
Filename:
chapter 1 Anatomy
Updated:
2014-01-12 22:30:50
Tags:
anatomy
Folders:

Description:
anatomy first chapter
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. CHAPTER 1
    The Human Body: An Orientation
  2. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
    • * Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
    • * Gross or macroscopic
    • * Microscopic
    • * Developmental
    • * Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery
  3. Gross Anatomy
    • * Regional – all structures in one part of the body
    • (such as the abdomen or leg)
    • * Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system
    • * Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
  4. Microscopic Anatomy
    • * Cytology – study of the cell
    • * Histology – study of tissues
  5. Developmental Anatomy
    • * Traces structural changes throughout life
    • * Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth
  6. Specialized Branches of Anatomy
    • * Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease
    • * Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans
    • * Molecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level
  7. Physiology
    • * Considers the operation of specific organ systems
    • * Renal – kidney function
    • * Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system
    • * Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels
    • * Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level
  8. * Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains
    • * electrical currents
    • * blood pressure
    • * the way muscle uses bone for movement
  9. Principle of Complementarity
    • * Function always reflects structure
    • * What a structure can do depends on its specific form
  10. Levels of Structural Organization
    • * Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules
    • * Cellular – cells are made of molecules
    • * Tissue – consists of similar types of cells
    • * Organ – made up of different types of tissues
    • * Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together
    • * Organismal – made up of the organ systems
  11. Integumentary System
    • * Forms the external body covering
    • * Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails
    • * Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
  12. Skeletal System
    • * Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments
    • * Protects and supports body organs
    • * Provides the framework for muscles
    • * Site of blood cell formation
    • * Stores minerals
  13. Muscular System
    • * Composed of muscles and tendons
    • * Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
    • * Maintains posture
    • * Produces heat
  14. Nervous System
    • * Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves
    • * Is the fast-acting control system of the body
    • * Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
  15. Cardiovascular System
    • * Composed of the heart and blood vessels
    • * The heart pumps blood
    • * The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
  16. Lymphatic System
    • * Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
    • * Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
    • * Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
    • * Houses white blood cells involved with immunity
  17. Respiratory System
    • * Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
    • * Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
  18. Digestive System
    • * Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver
    • * Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood
    • * Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
  19. Urinary System
    • * Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
    • * Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
    • * Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
  20. Male Reproductive System
    • * Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens
    • * Main function is the production of offspring
    • * Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones
    • * Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract
  21. Female Reproductive System
    • * Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
    • * Main function is the production of offspring
    • * Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
    • * Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus
    • * Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn
  22. Organ Systems Interrelationships
    • * The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment
    • * Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen
    • * Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood
    • * Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems
  23. Necessary Life Functions
    • * Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment
    • * Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes
    • * Organismal level – accomplished by the skin
    • * Movement – locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility
    • * Responsiveness – ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them
    • * Digestion – breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
    • * Metabolism – all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
    • * Excretion – removal of wastes from the body
    • * Reproduction – cellular and organismal levels
    • * Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells
    • * Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person
    • * Growth – increase in size of a body part or of the organism
  24. Survival Needs
    • * Nutrients – needed for energy and cell building
    • * Oxygen – necessary for metabolic reactions
    • * Water – provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions
    • * Normal body temperature – necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates
    • * Atmospheric pressure – required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
  25. Homeostasis
    • * Homeostasis – ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world
    • * The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium
    • * Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis
  26. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
    • * Variables produce a change in the body
    • * The three interdependent components of control mechanisms:
    • * Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)
    • * Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
    • * Effector – provides the means to respond to stimuli
  27. Negative Feedback
    • * In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus
    • * Example: Regulation of room temperature
  28. Positive Feedback
    • * In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
    • * Example: Regulation of blood clotting
  29. Homeostatic Imbalance
    • * Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium
    • * Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over
  30. The Human Body: An Orientation
  31. Anatomical Position
    * Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body
  32. Directional Terms
    • * Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively
    • * Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body
    • * Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure
    • * Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body part
    • * Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface
  33. Body Planes
    • * Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts
    • * Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline
    • * Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
    • * Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts
    • * Oblique section – cuts made diagonally
  34. Anatomical Variability
    • * Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy
    • * Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:
    • * Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place
    • * Small muscles may be missing
    • * Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen
  35. Body Cavities
    • * Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions
    • * Cranial cavity – within the skull; encases the brain
    • * Vertebral cavity – runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord
    • * Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions
    • * Thoracic
    • * Abdominopelvic
    • * Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity
    • * Pleural cavities – each houses a lung
    • * Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
    • * Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart
  36. * The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm
    • * It is composed of two subdivisions
    • * Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
    • * Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
  37. Ventral Body Cavity Membranes
    • * Parietal serosa lines internal body walls
    • * Visceral serosa covers the internal organs
    • * Serous fluid separates the serosae
  38. Other Body Cavities
    • * Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs
    • * Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose
    • * Orbital – house the eyes
    • * Middle ear – contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations
    • * Synovial – joint cavities
  39. Abdominopelvic Quadrants
    • * Right upper
    • * Left upper
    • * Right lower
    • * Left lower
  40. Miami Dade College – Hialeah Campus
    • Human Anatomy and Physiology I
    • BSC 2085 Lecture Outlines / Dr. E. Dominguez
  41. - 6 -
  42. - 2 -

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview