Philau Pharm1 Unit 1

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. What is pharmacodynamics?
    how a drug affects the recipient. (the mechanism of action)
  2. Pharmacokinetics
    • what the body does to the
    • drug (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination
  3. pharmacotherapeutics
    • the clinician applying drug
    • knowledge of the benefits and risks of drug therapy to individual care; uses
    • pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, age, gender, past and present health
    • status, family history, lifestyle behaviors, and drug compliance. (adverse reactions/side effects)
  4. Pharmacogenomics
    how individual genes affect the body’s response to a drug
  5. Identify the four pharmacokinetic activities
    • A.  absorption
    • B. distribution
    • C.  metabolism
    • D.    excretion
  6. volume of distribution
       the relationship between the dose of the drug administered and the serum concentration after administration
  7. clinical significance
    used to calculate the loading dose of a drug that will immediately achieve a desired steady state drug level
  8. phases of drug metabolism
     make the drug molecule more water soluble so the drug can be excreted via the kidney; diminish the biologic activity of a drug
  9. phase I of drug metabolism
    oxidation, hydrolysis, or reduction reactions; result in the loss of pharmacologic activity
  10. Phase II of drug metabolism
           conjugation to form glucuronides, acetates, or sulfates   factors that alter drug metabolism: individual differences (genetics), sex, ethnicity, other drugs, foods, herbs, vitamin supplements
  11. major sites of drug metabolism
    liver*, kidney, lung, small intestine, skin
  12. steady state
    a concentration of a drug in the systemic circulation that will eventually be achieved when a drug is administered at a constant rate;
  13. drug clearance
    : the measure of the body’s ability to eliminate a drug; used in pharmacokinetic calculations, and it does not identify the mechanisms or process of elimination; most important pharmacokinetic parameter because it determines the steady-state concentration for a given dosage route
  14. renal elimination
    glomerular filtration, passive tubular reabsorption, and active tubular reabsorption
  15. major routes of excretion
    primarily via the kidneys/urine but also in saliva, feces, sweat, mammary glands
  16. half life
    the time it takes for the plasma concentration or the amount of drug in the body to be reduced by 50% (1/2);
  17. ultrarapid metabolizers
    a person who metabolizes specific drugs more rapidly than most based on genetic polymorphisms in the CYP450 enzyme family.
  18. what is cytochrome P450 CYP
    the name for the group of enzymes that are responsible for the majority of drug metabolism reactions
  19. Inhibitor
    a drug that prevents production of the enzyme, which, in turn, decreases metabolism of the substrate drug and can cause an increased plasma level and therefore an increased therapeutic effect
  20. Inducer
    a drug that stimulates production of the enzyme, which, in turn, rapidly metabolizes the substrate drug and can cause a decreased therapeutic effect
  21. drug-receptor binding
    • a receptor is the cell component that interacts with drugs to produce psychophysiologic effects  often proteins
    •    a receptor is the governing agent in determining the dose for a drug
  22. affinity (attraction):
                                                   i.      the propensity of a drug to bind with a specific receptor, that determines the drug concentration necessary to achieve the desired effect
  23. drug binding (to a receptor) will
    either increase or decrease the rate of biologic response controlled by that specific receptor
  24. agonism
    a drug that stimulates a response when bound to a receptor (Agonist turn on the receptor site to exert an intrinsic effect)
  25. partial agonism
    drug molecule that elicits a partial pharmacologic response (fits in the receptor site but not very easily)
  26. Antagonism
    drugs that prevent a response when bound to a receptor (Have an affinity for a receptor but no intrinsic effect; blocks the receptor)
  27. Competative antagonist
    occurs when the antagonist has equal affinity for both active and inactive conformations of the receptor and competes with the agonist for binding to the active form of the receptor. The response to a competitive antagonist is reversible.
  28. Noncompetative agonists
    bind with part of the receptor away from the usual site to which an agonist binds. This causes a structural or functional change in the receptor that inactivates it, so agonist binding at the usual site fails to stimulate the expected physiologic response.  The effect of noncompetative antagonist is irreversible (changes the shape of the cell and works on a different part of the cell so that it induces a permanent change and blocks it)
  29. intracellular receptors/embedded enzymes
    •      receptor extends across the cell membrane with the ligand-binding area
      • located on the cell surface and the site for the enzyme activity on the intracellular portion of the receptor;
      • response time is seconds (example: insulin)
  30. trans membranous enzymes/nuclear receptors
    intracellular receptors; lipid soluble ligands cross cell membrane to reach receptors on nucleus of DNA (where transcription factors regulate protein synthesis); receptor activation stimulates transcription of messenger RNA templates for protein synthesis; response in hours to days
  31. gated channels
    similar to A in that the ion channels cross the cell membrane; receptors control the flow of ions into and out of the cell; ligand-binding specific to precise ion; binding of ligand to receptor opens channel; allowing ion flow; response in milliseconds (ex: calcium channels)
  32. G protein second messengers
    receptors located on cell surface or in a packet accessible from the cell surface; ligands bind to receptors on the exterior portion of cell membrane; intracellularly, bound receptors act as a catalytic enzyme; the second messenger then interacts with intracellular components (ex: albuterol; bronchodilators)
  33. Discuss the dose-response relationship. What is it? Why is it important?
    • the change in response caused by different doses of a drug
    • help determine safe doses for drugs
  34. dose-response curve:
    drawn by plotting the concentration of the drug on the X-axis and the response on the Y-axis
  35. threshold dose
    lowest dose at which a desired response is noted
  36. Potency
    concentration at which the drug elicits 50% of its maximal response
  37. Efficacy
    maximal response produced by the drug
  38. therapeutic range
    or therapeutic window, plasma drug concentration between the minimum effective concentration in the plasma for obtaining the desired drug action and the mean toxic concentration
  39. side-effect
    physiologic response unrelated to the desired drug effects that occur with therapeutic doses of the medication; may be beneficial, and if they are negative, the negative effects are not a threat to health and usually resolve spontaneously; some side effects are reported as a type of adverse effect
  40. Toxicity
    consequence of a dose that is beyond the body’s capability to metabolize under physiologic conditions; an adverse affect that is produced by a drug that is detrimental to the participant’s health
  41. Compartment model 1
    drug enters the central compartment (compartment 1) from outside the body
  42. Compartment model 2
    •  drug enters the central compartment (compartment 1) from outside the body
    • · Drug leaves the central compartment by one of two paths:
    • 1. Peripheral compartment (compartment 2)
    • 2. Drug leaves the body
    • · Drug that is in the peripheral part can return to the central compartment
    • · Drug recirculation occurs between the central and peripheral compartment but once the drug leaves the body, it does not re-enter the body
Card Set:
Philau Pharm1 Unit 1
2014-01-13 09:37:22
Philau Pharm

Pharmacology 1
Show Answers: