Anatomy chp 3

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akanemb
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256303
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Anatomy chp 3
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2014-01-13 15:23:21
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anatomy
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chapter 3
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  1. forms
    outer boundary of cell
    • Plasma
    • membrane
  2. plasma membrane
    Thin,two-layered membrane of phospholipids containing proteins
  3. –May attach to rough ER or lie free
    in cytoplasm
    †Ribosomes
  4. –Manufacture proteins; often called protein
    factories
    †Ribosomes
  5. collects and transports
    proteins made by ribosomes
    –Rough ER
  6. synthesizes chemicals; makes new membrane
    Smooth ER
  7. –Composed of inner and outer
    membranes; contains one DNA molecule
    mitocondria
  8. –Involved with energy-releasing
    chemical reactions; called power plants
    of the cell
    mitochondria
  9. –Membrane-enclosed packets
    containing digestive enzymes
    †Lysosomes
  10. –Function in cell reproduction
    †Centrioles
  11. –Fine, hairlike
    extensions found on free or exposed surfaces of some cells

    Capable
    of moving in unison in a wavelike fashion
    cilia
  12. –Single projections extending from
    cell surfaces; much larger than cilia
    flagella
  13. •Controls
    cell because it contains the genetic code—instructions for making proteins,
    which in turn determine cell structure and function
    Nucleus
  14. ˜processes do not require added
    energy and result in movement “down a concentration gradient”
    passive transport
  15. two forms of passive transport
    diffusion and filtration
  16. •Substances
    scatter themselves evenly throughout an available space, the particles moving
    from high to low concentration
    diffusion
  17. is diffusion of water
    osmosis
  18. movement of water and
    solutes caused by hydrostatic pressure on one side of membrane
    ØFiltration—
  19. processes
    occur only in living cells; movement of substances is “up the concentration
    gradient”; this requires energy from ATP
    active trasnport
  20. use energy from ATP to move substances across cell membranes against
    their concentration gradients
    Ion pumps
  21. are active transport mechanisms because they require cell energy
    Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
  22. •a
    protective mechanism often used to destroy bacteria
    phagocytosis
  23. •used
    to incorporate fluids or dissolved substances into cells
    pinocytosis
  24. •occurs
    in cytoplasm, thus genetic information must pass from the nucleus to the
    cytoplasm
    Protein synthesis
  25. what is happening when Double-stranded
    DNA separates to form messenger RNA (mRNA)
    ØTranscription
  26. •Involves
    synthesis of proteins in cytoplasm by ribosomes
    ØTranslation
  27. reproduction
    of cell involving division of the nucleus (mitosis) and the cytoplasm; period
    when the cell is not actively dividing is called interphase
    • Cell
    • division
  28. ˜process in cell division that distributes identical chromosomes (DNA molecules) to each
    new cell formed when the original cell divides; enables cells to reproduce
    their own kind; makes heredity possible
    mitosis
  29. Stages of mitosis
    • Prophase—first stage
    • Metaphase—second stage
    • Anaphase—third stage
    • Telophase—fourth stage
  30. •Chromatin
    granules become organized

    •Chromosomes
    (pairs of linked chromatids) appear

    •Centrioles
    move away from nucleus

    •Nuclear
    envelope disappears, freeing genetic material

    •Spindle
    fibers appear
    prophase
  31. •Chromosomes
    align across center of cell

    •Spindle
    fibers attach themselves to each chromatid
    metophase
  32. •Centromeres
    break apart

    •Separated
    chromatids then called chromosomes

    •Chromosomes
    are pulled to opposite ends of cell

    •Cleavage
    furrow develops at end of anaphase
    anaphase
  33. •Cell
    division is completed

    •Nuclei
    appear in daughter cells

    •Nuclear
    envelope and nucleoli appear

    •Cytoplasm
    is divided (cytokinesis)

    •Daughter
    cells become fully functional
    telaphase
  34. types of epi tissue
    •Squamous

    •Cuboidal

    •Columnar

    •Transitional
  35. single layer of scalelike
    cells adapted for transport
    Simple squamous epithelium
  36. several layers of closely packed cells specializing in
    protection
    Stratified squamous epithelium
  37. tall, column-like cells arranged in a single layer; contain mucus-producing goblet cells; specialized for absorption
    Simple columnar epithelium
  38. up to 10 layers of roughly cuboidal-shaped cells that distort to squamous shape when stretched; found in body areas that stretch,
    such as urinary bladder
    • Stratified
    • transitional epithelium
  39. single layer of distorted columnar cells; each cell touches basement
    membrane
    Pseudostratified epithelium
  40. single layer of cube like
    cells often specialized for secretory activity; may secrete into ducts,
    directly into blood, and on body surface
    Simple cuboidal epithelium
  41. Most abundant and widely
    distributed tissue in body, with many different types, appearances, and
    functions
    connective tissue
  42. attaches
    to bones; also called striated or voluntary;
    control is voluntary; striations apparent when viewed under a microscope
    Skeletal tissue
  43. also called striated involuntary;
    composes heart wall; ordinarily cannot control contractions
    Cardiac tissue
  44. also called nonstriated (visceral)
    or involuntary; no cross striations; found in blood vessels and other tube-shaped organs
    Smooth tissue

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