Bio 2 exam 1

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Bio 2 exam 1
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  1. Phylogeny
    The Evolutionary History of organisms
  2. Systematics
    the branch of biology that studies the diversity of life and its evolutionary relationships
  3. Taxonomy
    the science that identifies, names and classifies new species
  4. Carolus Linnaeous
    Swedish Naturalist; was the first practitioner of Taxonomy
  5. genus
    a group of species with similar characteristics located within the binomial system of nomenclature
  6. Specific epithet
    Species Name, utilized with the binomial nomenclature
  7. Taxon
    The organisims included within any category of the taxonomic categories
  8. Phylogenetic Trees
    formal hypotheses that identify likely relationships among species and higher taxonomic groups.
  9. Clade
    a Branch on a phylogenetic tree
  10. Monophyletic Taxa
    comprises one clade - an ancestral species and all of its descendants but no other species
  11. Parphyletic Taxon
    A taxon that includes an ancestor and some but not all of its descendants.
  12. Homologies
    similarities that result from shared ancestry
  13. Analogies
    Organisms that are not closely related but bear a striking resemblance to one another, especially when exposed to similar patterns of natural selection.
  14. Molecular Systematics
    Determined by DNA or RNA to determine Systematics
  15. Fossil Record
    The totality of fossilized artifacts and their placement within the earth's rock strata. It provides information about the history of life on earth, for instance what the organisms look like, where and when they live, how they evolved, etc.
  16. Latinized
    The action of classifying genus and species utilitizing latin as the language in which to do  so
  17. Classification of Species
    Domain, Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  18. Cladistics
    the classificaltion of organisms based on their actural genetic similarity
  19. Shared Primitive Character
    A characteristic that when it appears it is shared with all its descendants for example the spine
  20. Ingroup
    Group of species that share the same characteristics
  21. Outgroup
    Species closely related to the study group but not entirely similar
  22. Phylograms
    Common ancestry over a particular timeframe and divergence within.
  23. Ultrametric tree
    Branching pattern that can be traced from ancestor to the present are the same
  24. Orthologous gene
    the homologous genes pass in a straight line from one generation to next but end up in separate gene pools
  25. Paralogous genes
    show up from duplication of the gene it is not linear it branches.
  26. Molecular Clock
    the average rate at which a species' genome accumulates mutations, used to measure their evolutionary divergence
  27. Neutral Theory
    • Developed by Matoo Kimura.
    • The hypothesis that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian  natural selection
  28. Bacteria
    One of the 2 domains of prokaryotes; collectively, bacteria are the most metabollically diverse organisms
  29. Archaea
    one of 2 domains of prokaryotes; these have some unique molecular and biochemical traits, but they also share some traits with bacteria and other traits with eukarya
  30. Eukarya
    the domain that includes all eukaryotes, organisms that contain a membrane-bound nucleus within each of their cells; all protists, plants, fungi, and animals
  31. Eukaryotes
    an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms
  32. A. L. Oparin
    developed primordial soup theory, which said that something triggered certain elements into a living cell
  33. Primitive soup
    a solution rich in organic compounds in the primitive oceans of the earth, from which life is hypothesized to have originated.
  34. Miller Urey Experiment
    an experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested for the occurrence of chemical origins of life. Specifically, the experiment tested Alexander Oparin's and J. B. S. Haldane's hypothesis that conditions on the primitive Earth favored chemical reactions that synthesized more complex organic compounds from simpler organic precursors. Considered to be the classic experiment concerning the experimental abiogenesis, it was conducted in 1953[3] by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey at the University of Chicago and later the University of California, San Diego and published the following year
  35. abiotic
    without life, chemical and mineral elements combine to create a living cell
  36. probionts
    amino acids- protein producing part of organisms, very important to membrane
  37. replicates
    multiple subjects that receive either the same experimental treatment or the same control treatment
  38. metabolism
    the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
  39. Ribozyme
    an RNA-based catalyst that is part of the biochemical machinery of all cells.
  40. Radiometric dating
    predicting the age of fossils based on decay of radioactive isotopes
  41. Half-life
    the time it takes for half of a given amount of radioisotope to decay
  42. geologic record
    refers to the entirety of the layers of rock strata — deposits laid down in volcanism or by sediment deposition of weathering detritus (clays, sands etc.) including all its fossil content and the information it yields about the history of the Earth: its past climate, geography, geology and the evolution of life on its surface
  43. proterozoic
    • the eon that constitutes the later part of the Precambrian, between the Archean eon and the Cambrian period, in which the earliest forms of life evolved
    • characterized by the appearance of bacteria and marine algae
  44. Paleozoic
    the era between the Precambrian eon and the Mesozoic era. characterized by the advent of fish, insects, and reptiles.
  45. mesozoic
    an era occurring between 230 and 65 million years ago, characterized by the appearance of flowering plants and by the appearance and extinction of dinosaurs.
  46. cenozoic
    the present era, beginning 65 million years ago and characterized by the ascendancy of mammals
  47. permian
    a period of the Paleozoic Era occurring from about 280 to 230 million years ago and characterized by a profusion of amphibian species.
  48. cretaceous
    a period of the Mesozoic Era, from 140 million to 65 million years ago, characterized by the greatest development and subsequent extinction of dinosaurs and the advent of flowering plants and modern insects
  49. stomatolites
    a calcareous mound built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils
  50. cytoskeleton
    a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence.
  51. endosymbiosis
    symbiosis in which one of the symbiotic organisms lives inside the other.
  52. tetrapod
    a four-footed animal, esp. a member of a group that includes all vertebrates higher than fishes.
  53. continental drift
    the gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
  54. pangaea
    a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, forming approximately 300 million years ago. It began to break apart around 200 million years ago.
  55. protists
    Protists are a large and diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms
  56. photosynthetic protists
    are represented by mainly unicellular algae. These organisms are mostly planktonic and represent the phytoplanktons which account for nearly 80% of the total photosynthetic activity in the biosphere.
  57. ingestive protists
    protozoa
  58. secondary Endosymbiosis
    Primary endosymbiosis involves the engulfment of a bacterium by another free living organism. Secondary endosymbiosis occurs when the product of primary endosymbiosis is itself engulfed and retained by another free living eukaryote.
  59. anaerobic
    involving, or requiring an absence of free oxygen.
  60. Diplomonads
    2 equally sized nuclei and multiple flagella
  61. parabasalids
    abnormal mitochodria, flagellated protists, form symbiotic relationships with animals
  62. kinetoplastids
    a group of single-cell flagellate protozoa, including a number of parasites responsible for serious diseases in humans and other animals,
  63. euglenids
    • Protist autotroph, photosynthetic photo taxic
    • marine and freshwater green or colorless flagellate organism
  64. Syngamy
    the fusion of two cells, or of their nuclei, in reproduction.
  65. alveolates
    protist, membrane bound sac under the plasma membrane
  66. bloom/red tide
    population explosion of organisms because of the appearance of Carotenoids
  67. Carotenoids
    allow plants to carry out photosynthesis; some are bioluminous, created by ATP chemical reaction
  68. mutualistic symbionts
    A symbiotic relationship between individuals of different species in which both individuals benefit from the association.
  69. apicomplexans
    A large group of protozoans that are characterized by having a special organelle called an apical complex. Most of them are single-celled, parasitic, and spore-forming.
  70. sporozoites
    One of the minute elongated bodies resulting from the repeated division of the oocyst. In the case of the malarial parasite, it is the form that is concentrated in the salivary glands and introduced into the blood by the bite of a mosquito; it enters the liver cells and infects the red blood cells to initiate clinical malaria.
  71. apicoplast
    An apicoplast is a derived non-photosynthetic plastid found in most Apicomplexa, including malaria parasites such as Plasmodium
  72. anopheles
    a mosquito of a genus that is particularly common in warmer countries and includes the mosquitoes that transmit the malarial parasite to humans.
  73. ciliates
    a single-celled animal of a phylum distinguished by the possession of cilia or ciliary structures. The ciliates are a large and diverse group of advanced protozoans.
  74. macronuclei
    the larger type of nucleus in ciliates. Macronuclei are polyploid and undergo direct division without mitosis. It controls the non-reproductive cell functions, the everyday tasks, such as metabolism
  75. micronuclei
    is the smaller nucleus in ciliate protozoans, such as the Paramecium. In fission it divides by mitosis, and in conjugation it furnishes the pairing of gamete nuclei, by whose reciprocal fusion a zygote nucleus is formed
  76. binary fission
    the subdivision of a cell into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate cells
  77. conjugation
    the fusion of two gametes, esp. when they are of a similar size
  78. Stramenophiles
    Most are algae, ranging from the giant multicellular kelp to the unicellular diatoms, which are a primary component of plankton. have smooth and hairy flagella
  79. oomycetes
    • nonphotosynthetic fungi that resemble algae and that reproduce by forming oospores;
    • uses an enzyme to decompose matter
  80. diatoms
    a single-celled alga that has a cell wall of silica. reproduce asexually, and stores food in laminarins
  81. laminarin
    a storage glucan found in brown algae. It is used as a carbohydrate food reserve
  82. Golden Algae
    Named for color, bi flagellinated, photosynthetic, many are clonal
  83. Brown Algae
    largest complex algae; mostly marine, photosynthetic, commonly called sea weed
  84. chrysos
    latin for golden
  85. holdfast
    anchors algae to the sea bed
  86. stipe
    the stem of a seaweed
  87. blades
    provide the surface for photosynthesis
  88. kelps
    a large brown seaweed that typically has a long, tough stalk with a broad frond divided into strips. Some kinds grow to a very large size and form underwater “forests” that support a large population of animals
  89. agar
    thickens food, made from polymer from algae and is used to grow bacteria
  90. alternation of Generation
    applies only to life cycles in which haploid and diploid cells are multicellular
  91. heteromorphic
    action in which sporophytes and homdiophytes do not resemble one another
  92. cercozoans
    a group of protists. They are sometimes described as a kingdom.
  93. radiolarians
    a single-celled aquatic animal that has a spherical, amebalike body with a spiny skeleton of silica. Their skeletons can accumulate as a slimy deposit on the seabed.
  94. amoebas
    a single-celled animal that catches food and moves about by extending fingerlike projections of protoplasm
  95. pseudopodia
    a temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding.
  96. foraminiferans
    a single-celled planktonic animal with a perforated chalky shell through which slender protrusions of protoplasm extend. Most kinds are marine, and when they die, their shells form thick ocean-floor sediments.
  97. forams
    class of amoeboid protists. They are characterized both by their thin pseudopodia that form an external net for catching food, and they usually have an external shell, or test, made of various materials and constructed in diverse forms.
  98. amoebozoans
    major group of amoeboid protozoa, including the majority that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow. Their pseudopodia are characteristically blunt and finger-like, called lobopodia
  99. gymanamoebas
    Free-living amoebas that keep growing until they can fully wrap themselves around food
  100. entaamoebas
    an ameba that typically lives harmlessly in the gut, though one kind can cause amebic dysentery
  101. slime molds
    simple organism that consists of an acellular mass of creeping jellylike protoplasm containing nuclei,
  102. cellular slime molds
    differing from true slime molds in being cellular and nucleate throughout the life cycle
  103. mycetozoans
    is a grouping of slime molds.
  104. Green Algae
    photosynthetic algae that contain chlorophyll and store starch in discrete chloroplasts. They are eukaryotic and most live in fresh water,ranging from unicellular flagellates to more complex multicellular forms.
  105. Rhodophytes
    red algae
  106. chlorophytes
    green algae. over 7000 species
  107. chloroplasts
    a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
  108. phycoerythrin
    any of a group of red photosynthetic pigments present in red algae and some cyanobacteria.
  109. chlorophyll
    a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria,responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis
  110. thalli
    green shoot or twig
  111. tight junctions
    a specialized connection of two adjacent animal cell membranes such that the space usually lying between them is absent.
  112. desmosomes
    a structure by which two adjacent cells are attached, formed from protein plaques in the cell membranes linked by filaments
  113. gap junctions
    a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types. It directly connects the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules and ions to pass freely between cells
  114. zygote
    a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum
  115. cleavage
    cell division, esp. of a fertilized egg cell.
  116. blastula
    an animal embryo at the early stage of development when it is a hollow ball of cells.
  117. gastrula
    an embryo at the stage following the blastula, when it is a hollow cup-shaped structure having three layers of cells.
  118. gastrulation
    the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
  119. Larva
    the active immature form of an insect, esp. one that differs greatly from the adult and forms the stage between egg and pupa, e.g., a caterpillar or grub
  120. metamorphosis
    the process of transformation from an immature form to an adult form in two or more distinct stages
  121. Cambrian Explosion
    the relatively rapid appearance, around 542 million years ago, of most major animal phyla, as demonstrated in the fossil record. This was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms
  122. grade
    a group of animals at a similar evolutionary level.
  123. symmetry
    the quality of being made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis.
  124. radial symmetry
    symmetry around a central axis, as in a starfish or a tulip flower.
  125. bilateral symmetry
    the property of being divisible into symmetrical halves on either side of a unique plane.
  126. ventral
    relating to the underside of an animal or plant; abdominal
  127. anterior
    nearer the front, esp. situated in the front of the body or nearer to the head.
  128. posterior
    further back in position; of or nearer the rear or hind end, esp. of the body or a part of it.
  129. tissues
    any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.
  130. germ layer
    each of the three layers of cells (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) that are formed in the early embryo.
  131. ectoderm
    the outermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which include the epidermis and nerve tissue
  132. endoderm
    the innermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which include the lining of the gut and associated structures.
  133. archenteron
    the rudimentary alimentary cavity of an embryo at the gastrula stage
  134. diploblastic
    2 germ layer; having a body derived from only two embryonic cell layers (ectoderm and endoderm, but no mesoderm), as in sponges
  135. mesoderm
    the middle layer of an embryo in early development, between the endoderm and ectoderm; 3 germ layers
  136. triploblastic
    having a body derived from three embryonic cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm), as in all multicellular animals except sponges and coelenterates.
  137. Body Cavity
    Fluid sealed place; any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism, other than those of vessels. However, the term usually refers to the space located between an animal’s outer covering, and the outer lining of the gut cavity, where internal organs develop
  138. Coelom
    the body cavity in metazoans, located between the intestinal canal and the body wall.
  139. Acoelomates
    An animal that lacks a coelom. Acoelomates, which include the flatworm, fluke, tapeworm, and ribbon worm, exhibit bilateral symmetry
  140. Protostome
    a multicellular organism whose mouth develops from a primary embryonic opening, such as an annelid, mollusk, or arthropod.
  141. Deuterostome
    Radial cleavage can be divided at 4 cell stage, are undeterminate get 2 individuals
  142. spiral cleavage
    this group includes annelids, mollusks; this form of cleavage can vary between species, but generally the first two cell divisions result in four blastomeres
  143. Dinoflagellates
    2 flagellum most are unicellular, reinforced plates of cellulose, spin through the water
  144. determinate cleavage
    Determinate is the form of cleavage in most protostomes. It results in the developmental fate of the cells being set early in the embryo development. Each cell produced by early embryonic cleavage does not have the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.
  145. schizocoelous
    • occurs when a coelom is formed by splitting the mesodermal embryonic tissue.
    • in animals
  146. blastopore
    the opening of the central cavity of an embryo in the early stage of development.
  147. invertebrates
    an animal lacking a backbone, such as an arthropod, mollusk, annelid, coelenterate, etc. The invertebrates constitute an artificial division of the animal kingdom, comprising 95 percent of animal species and about 30 different phyla.
  148. sponges
    a primitive sedentary aquatic invertebrate with a soft porous body that is typically supported by a framework of fibers or calcareous or glassy spicules. Sponges draw in a current of water to extract nutrients and oxygen.
  149. sissile
    f an organism, e.g., a barnacle) fixed in one place; immobile. suspension feeder
  150. spongocoel
    the large, central cavity of sponges. Water enters the spongocoel through hundreds of tiny pores and exits through the larger opening. Depending on the body plan of the sponge, the spongocoel could be a simple interior space of the sponge or a complexly branched inner structure.
  151. osculum
    a large aperture in a sponge through which water is expelled.
  152. hermaphrodites
    of or denoting a person, animal, or plant having both male and female sex organs or other sexual characteristics. most sponges are hermaphroditic
  153. cribrostatin
    antiobiotic producing structure produced by strep, can be used against strep that resists penicillin
  154. Choanocytes
    flagellated cell with a collar of protoplasm at the base of the flagellum, numbers of which line the internal chambers of sponges.
  155. cnidarians
    any invertebrate animal, as a hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, or coral, considered as belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, characterized by the specialized stinging structures in the tentacles surrounding the mouth; a coelenterate.
  156. cnidocytes
    an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida that defines the phylum Cnidaria. Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.
  157. gastrovascular cavity
    functions in both digestion and the distribution of nutrients and particles to all parts of the body.
  158. nematocysts
    a specialized cell in the tentacles of a jellyfish or other coelenterate, containing a barbed or venomous coiled thread that can be projected in self-defense or to capture prey.
  159. hydrozoans
    a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in saltwater. eg. portuguese man of war
  160. scyphozoans
    free-swimming marine coelenterates having a gelatinous medusoid stage as the dominant phase of its life cycle
  161. polyp
    a solitary or colonial sedentary form of a coelenterate such as a sea anemone, typically having a columnar body with the mouth uppermost surrounded by a ring of tentacles. In some species, polyps are a phase in the life cycle that alternates with a medusoid phase
  162. medusa
    a free-swimming sexual form of a coelenterate such as a jellyfish, typically having an umbrella-shaped body with stinging tentacles around the edge. In some species, medusae are a phase in the life cycle that alternates with a polypoid phase.
  163. cubozoans
    • any of various highly venomous jellyfishes of the Australian tropical waters, having a cuboidal body with tentacles
    • sea wasp
  164. anthozoan
    Any of a class (Anthozoa) of marine organisms, such as the corals and sea anemones, that have radial segments and grow singly or in colonies.
  165. flatworm
    Any of various parasitic and nonparasitic worms of the phylum Platyhelminthes, such as a tapeworm or a planarian, characteristically having a soft, flat, bilaterally symmetrical body and no body cavity.
  166. platyhelminthes
    a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
  167. turbellarians
    one of the traditional sub-divisions of the phylum Platyhelminthes, and include all the sub-groups that are not exclusively parasitic. There are about 4,500 species, which range from 1 mm to 600 mm in length
  168. monogeneans
    small parasitic flatworms mainly found on skin or gills of fish
  169. trematodes
    parasites of molluscs and vertebrates. Most trematodes have a complex life cycle with at least two hosts. The primary host, where the flukes sexually reproduce, is a vertebrate. The intermediate host, which is the agent of dispersal, is usually a snail.
  170. tapeworms
    a parasitic flatworm, the adult of which lives in the intestine of humans and other vertebrates. It has a long ribbonlike body with many segments that can become independent, and a small head bearing hooks andsuckers.
  171. cestoidea
    the name given to a class of parasitic flatworms, commonly called tapeworms, of the phylum Platyhelminthes.
  172. scolex
    the anterior end of a tapeworm, bearing suckers and hooks for attachment.Origin
  173. proglottids
    each segment in the strobila of a tapeworm, containing a complete sexually mature reproductive system.
  174. rotifer
    a minute multicellular aquatic animal
  175. alimentary canal
    the whole passage along which food passes through the body from mouth to anus. It includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
  176. parthenogenesis
    reproduction from an ovum without fertilization, esp. as a normal process in some invertebrates and lower plants.
  177. lophophorates
    horseshoe-shaped structure bearing ciliated tentacles around the mouth in certain small marine invertebrates.
  178. ectoprocts
    sessile mossy aquatic animal having the anus of the polyp outside the crown of tentacles
  179. phoronids
    hermaphrodite wormlike animal living in mud of the sea bottom
  180. brachiopods
    • marine animals that have hard "valves" on the upper and lower
    • surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
  181. nemerteans
    a ribbon worm.
  182. mollusk foot
    muscular appendage found in mollusks. While most mammals have two or four feet, mollusks have one
  183. visceral mass
    One of the three main parts of a mollusc, containing most of the internal organs.
  184. mantle
    ) a fold of skin enclosing the viscera and secreting the substance that produces the shell.
  185. mantle cavity
    the cavity between the mantle and the body proper of a mollusk or brachiopod in which the respiratory organs lie
  186. red algae
    one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae, and also one of the largest, with about 5,000–6,000 species of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds.
  187. radula
    (in a mollusk) a rasplike structure of tiny teeth used for scraping food particles off a surface and drawing them into the mouth
  188. trochophore
    A trochophore is a type of free-swimming planktonic marine larva with several bands of cilia.By moving their cilia rapidly, a water eddy is created. In this way they control the direction of their movement.
  189. chitons
    a marine mollusk that has an oval flattened body with a shell of overlapping plates.
  190. polyplacophora
    an order comprising the chitons all of which have the foot occupying the whole ventral surface of the body and the shell composed of eight calcified dorsal plates
  191. gastropods
    more commonly known as snails and slugs, are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca. The class Gastropoda includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to large.
  192. torsion
    the spontaneous twisting of the visceral hump through 180° during larval development.
  193. bivalves
    an aquatic mollusk that has a compressed body enclosed within a hinged shell, such as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops.
  194. cephalopods
    an active predatory mollusk of the large class Cephalopoda, such as an octopus or squid.
  195. annelid
    a segmented worm such as an earthworm or leech
  196. oligochaetes
    an annelid worm such as an earthworm.
  197. polychaetes
    a polyphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine. Each body segment has a pair of fleshy protrusions called parapodia that bear many bristles, called chaetae, which are made of chitin.
  198. leeches
    an aquatic or terrestrial annelid worm with suckers at both ends. Many species are bloodsucking parasites, esp. of vertebrates, and others are predators.
  199. nematodes
    a worm of the large phylum Nematoda, such as a roundworm or threadworm.
  200. arthropods
    an invertebrate animal of the large phylum Arthropoda, such as an insect, spider, or crustacean.
  201. trilobytes
    an extinct marine arthropod that occurred abundantly during the Paleozoic era, with a carapace over the forepart, and a segmented hind part divided longitudinally into three lobes.
  202. exoskeleton
    a rigid external covering for the body in some invertebrate animals, esp. arthropods, providing both support and protection.
  203. molting
    of an animal) shed old feathers, hair, or skin, or an old shell, to make way for a new growth.
  204. open circulatory system
    a system in which a fluid in a cavity called the hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid; this combined fluid is called hemolymph or haemolymph.
  205. cheliceriforms
    constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda, and includes horseshoe crabs, scorpions, spiders, mites, harvestmen, ticks
  206. myriapods
    anarthropod of a group that includes the centipedes, millipedes, and related animals. Myriapods have elongated bodies with numerous leg-bearing segments.Origin
  207. hexapod
    an animal having six feet
  208. crustaceans
    an arthropod of the large, mainly aquatic group Crustacea, such as a crab, lobster, shrimp, or barnacle.
  209. chelicerae
    either of a pair of appendages in front of the mouth in arachnids and some other arthropods, usually modified as pincerlike claws.
  210. eurypterids
    an extinct marine arthropod of a group occurring in the Paleozoic era. They are related to horseshoe crabs and resemble large scorpions with a terminal pair of paddle-shaped swimming appendages.
  211. book lungs
    (in a spider or other arachnid) each of a pair of respiratory organs composed of many fine leaves. They are situated in the abdomen and have openings on the underside.
  212. mandibles
    the jaw or a jawbone, esp. the lower jawbone in mammals and fishes.
  213. devonian period
    : from 405 million to 345 million years ago; preponderance of fishes and appearance of amphibians and ammonites
  214. incomplete metamorphosis
    is the mode of development of certain insects that includes three distinct stages: the egg, nymph, and the adult stage, or imago. These groups go through gradual changes; there is no pupal stage
  215. complete metamorphosis
    is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages – as an embryo or egg, a larva, a pupa and an imago or adult
  216. isopod
    the name for an order of peracarid crustaceans, including familiar animals such as woodlice and pill bugs.
  217. krill
    a small shrimplike planktonic crustacean of the open seas. It is eaten by a number of larger animals, notably the baleen whales.Origin
  218. echinoderms
    a phylum of marine animals. The adults are recognizable by their radial symmetry, and include such well-known animals as starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers.
  219. chordates
    an animal of the large phylum Chordata, comprising the vertebrates together with the sea squirts and lancelets.
  220. water vascular system
    a network of water vessels in the body, the tube feet being operated by hydraulic pressure within the vessels.
  221. tube foot
    arge number of small, flexible, hollow appendages protruding through the ambulacra, used either for locomotion or for collecting food and operated by hydraulic pressure within the water-vascular system.
  222. vertebrates
    an animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes
  223. notochord
    a cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic and some adult chordate animals.Origin
  224. pharyngeal slits
    Pharyngeal slits are filter-feeding organs found in non-vertebrate chordates and hemichordates living in aquatic environments.
  225. tunicates
    a marine invertebrate of a group that includes the sea squirts and salps. They have a rubbery or hard outer coat and two siphons to draw water into and out of the body.
  226. somites
    each of a number of body segments containing the same internal structures, clearly visible in invertebrates such as earthworms but also present in the embryonic stages of vertebrates.Origin
  227. craniates
    an animal that possesses a skull.
  228. neural crest
    Neural crest cells are a transient, multipotent, migratory cell population unique to vertebrates that gives rise to a diverse cell lineage
  229. conodonts
    an extinct marine animal of the Cambrian to Triassic periods, having a long wormlike body, numerous small teeth, and a pair of eyes. It is now believed to be the earliest vertebrate.
  230. lateral line system
    the lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, chiefly fish, used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water
  231. placoderms
    an extinct fish of the Devonian period, having the front part of the body encased in broad flat bony plates.Origin
  232. acanthodians
    a small spiny-finned, jawed fossil fish of a group found chiefly in the Devonian period.Origin
  233. chondrichthyans
    are jawed fish with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
  234. spiral valve
    A spiral valve is the lower portion of the intestine of some sharks, rays, skates and bichirs. A modification of the ileum, the spiral valve is internally twisted or coiled to increase the surface area of the intestine, to increase nutrient absorption.
  235. oviparous
    producing young by means of eggs that are hatched after they have been laid by the parent.
  236. ovoviviparous
    producing young by means of eggs that are hatched within the body of the parent, as in some snakes.
  237. viviparous
    ) bringing forth live young that have developed inside the body of the parent.
  238. cloaca
    a common cavity at the end of the digestive tract for the release of both excretory and genital products in vertebrates (except most mammals) and certain invertebrates. Specifically, the cloaca is present in birds, reptiles, amphibians, most fish, and monotremes.
  239. operculum
    a structure that closes or covers an aperture, in particular.
  240. swim bladder
    a gas-filled sac present in the body of many bony fishes, used to maintain and control buoyancy.
  241. extraembryonic membrane
    any of the tissues, derived from the fertilized egg, that enclose or otherwise contribute to the support of the developing embryo, as the yolk sac, allantois, amnion, and chorion.
  242. diapsids
    a reptile of a large group characterized by the presence of two temporal openings in the skull, including the lizards, snakes, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs.
  243. ratites
    any of the mostly large, flightless birds with a ratite breastbone, i.e., the ostrich, rhea, emu, cassowary, and kiwi, together with the extinct moa and elephant bird.Origin
  244. synapsids
    a fossil reptile of a Permian and Triassic group, the members of which show increasingly mammalian characteristics and include the ancestors of mammals.
  245. mosaic evolution
    the concept that evolutionary change takes place in some body parts or systems without simultaneous changes in other parts. Another definition is the "evolution of characters at various rates both within and between species"

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