Chapter 25-26 Test Review

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Chapter 25-26 Test Review
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Chapter 25-26 APUSH Test Review
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  1. Population Growth
    From 1870 to 1900, the American population doubled, and the population in the cities tripled.
  2. Growth of Cities/Examples
    The city grew from a small compact one that people could walk through to get around to a huge metropolis that required commuting by electric trolleys. Electricity,indoor plumbing, and telephones made city life more alluring.
  3. Louis Sullivan
    Cities grew up and out, with such famed architects as Louis Sullivan working on and perfecting skyscrapers (first appearing in Chicago in 1885).
  4. *Problems in Cities
    • In cities, criminals flourished, and impure water,uncollected garbage, unwashed bodies, and droppings made cities smelly and
    • unsanitary. Worst of all were the slums, which were crammed with people. The so-called “dumbbell tenements” (which gave a bit of fresh air down their airshaft) were the worst since they were dark, cramped, and had little sanitation or ventilation.
  5. Reasons for Immigration
    Many Europeans came to America because there was no room in Europe, nor was there much employment, since industrialization had eliminated many jobs.
  6. The New Immigration From Where
    By the 1880s and 1890s, this shifted to the Baltic and Slavic people of southeastern Europe, who were basically the opposite, “New Immigration.”
  7. Immigrants and Tweed
    The federal government did little to help immigrant sassimilateinto American society, so immigrants were often controlled by powerful“bosses” (such as New York’s Boss Tweed) who providedjobs and shelter in return for political support at the polls.
  8. “Social Gospel,”
    Gradually, though, the nation’s conscience awoke to the plight of the slums, and people like Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden began preaching the “Social Gospel,” insisting that churches tackle the burning social issues of the day.
  9. *Hull House/Adams
    Among the people who were deeply dedicated to uplifting the urban masses was Jane Addams, who founded Hull House in 1889 to teach children and adults the skills and knowledge that they would need to survive and succeed in America.
  10. Florence Kelley
    Settlement houses became centers for women’s activism and reform, as females such as Florence Kelley fought for protection of women workers and against child labor.
  11. Working Women
    The new cities also gave women opportunities to earn money and support themselves better (mostly single women, since being both a working mother and wife was frowned upon).
  12. *nativism”
    The “nativism” and anti-foreignism of the 1840s and 1850s came back in the 1880s, as the Germans and western Europeans looked down upon the new Slavs and Baltics, fearing that a mixing of blood would ruin the fairer Anglo-Saxon races and create inferior offspring.
  13. American Protective Association
    Anti-foreign organizations like the American Protective Association (APA) arose to go against new immigrants, and labor leaders were quick to try to stop new immigration, since immigrants were frequently used as strikebreakers.
  14. Chinese Exclusion Act
    Literacy tests for immigrants were proposed, but were resisted until they were finally passed in 1917, but the 1882 immigration law also barred the Chinese from coming (the Chinese Exclusion Act).
  15. Statue of Liberty Symbolic
    Ironically in this anti-immigratnt climate, the Statue of Liberty arrived from France—a gift from the French to America in 1886.
  16. *Dwight Lyman Moody
    A new generation of urban revivalists stepped in, including people like Dwight Lyman Moody, a man who proclaimed the gospel of kindness and forgiveness and adapted the old-time religion to the facts of city life.
  17. Salvation Army
    By 1890, Americans could choose from 150 religions, including the new Salvation Army, which tried to help the poor and unfortunate.
  18. The Church of Christ
    The Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science), founded by Mary Baker Eddy, preached a perversion of Christianity that she claimed healed sickness.
  19. YMCA
    YMCA’s and YWCA’s also sprouted. Membership in the YMCA or YWCA (the Young Men's/Women's Christian Association) grew quickly. They mixed religion with exercise and activity.
  20. *Charles Darwin
    In 1859, Charles Darwin published his On the Origin of Species, which set forth the new doctrine of evolution and attracted the ire and fury of fundamentalists.
  21. Religious reaction to Darwin
    "Fundamentalists" believed the bible as it is written, without any errors. They accepted Genesis 1:1 that states, "In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth."Liberal Christians blended evolution with divine creation. They justified evolution as acts of God."Modernists" rejected religion and accepted Darwin's theory of evolution and his rationale for the beginnings of life and of life's variety.“Modernists” took a step from the fundamentalists and refused to believe that the Bible was completely accurate and factual.They contended that the Bible was merely a collection of moral stories or guidelines, but not sacred scripture inspired by God.
  22. Education Changes
    • A new trend began in the creation of more public schools and the provision of free textbooks funded by taxpayers. By 1900, there were 6,000 high schools in America; kindergartens also multiplied. Catholic schools also grew in popularity and in
    • number.
  23. Literacy Rate
    Stats reflect the benefits of education: the illiteracy rate fell from 20% (1870) to 10.7% (1900).
  24. *Booker T. Washington – accommodation
    Booker T. Washington, an ex-slave came to help. He started by heading a black normal (teacher) and industrial school in Tuskegee, Alabama, and teaching the students useful skills and trades. However, he avoided the issue of social equality; he believed in Blacks helping themselves first before gaining more rights.
  25. George Washington Carver
    One of Washington’s students was George Washington Carver, who later discovered hundreds of new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans.
  26. *WEB Dubois – Talented Tenth
    However, W.E.B. Du Bois, the first Black to get a Ph.D. from Harvard University, demanded complete equality for Blacks and action now. He also founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.
  27. *NAACP
    WEB Dubois founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.
  28. College Changes (1st grad school, changes in education)
    • Private donations also went toward the establishment of colleges, including Cornell, Leland Stanford Junior, and the University of
    • Chicago, which was funded by John D. Rockefeller. Johns Hopkins University maintained the nation’s first high-grade graduate school.
  29. *The Morrill Act of 1862
    The Morrill Act of 1862 had provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education.
  30. *Hatch Act of 1887
    Hatch Act of 1887, which provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges.
  31. Changes in Education (specialization, religion)
    The elective system of college was gaining popularity, and it took off especially after Dr. Charles W. Eliot became president of Harvard. Medical schools and science were prospering after the Civil War.
  32. libraries
    Libraries such as the Library of Congress also opened across America, bringing literature into people’s homes.
  33. *yellow journalism/sensationalism
    With the invention of the Linotype in 1885, the press more than kept pace with demand, but competition sparked a new brand of journalism called “yellow journalism,” in which newspapers reported on wild and fantastic stories that often were false or quite exaggerated: sex, scandal, and other human-interest stories.
  34. *Pulitzer and Hearst
    Two new journalistic tycoons emerged: Joseph Pulitzern (New York World) and William Randolph Hearst (San Francisco Examiner, et al.).
  35. Associated Press
    Luckily, the strengthening of the Associated Press, which had been established in the 1840s, helped to offset some of the questionable journalism.
  36. Harper’s, the Atlantic Monthly
    Magazines like Harper’s, the Atlantic Monthly, and Scribner’s Monthly partially satisfied the public appetite for good reading.
  37. Looking Backward
    Edward Bellamy published Looking Backward in 1888, in which he criticized the social injustices of the day and pictured a utopian government that had nationalized big business serving the public good.
  38. “dime-novels”
    After the war, Americans devoured “dime-novels” which depicted the wild West and other romantic and adventurous settings.

    The king of dime novelists was Harland F. Halsey, who made 650 of these novels.General Lewis Wallace wrote Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ, which combated the ideas and beliefs of Darwinism and reaffirmed the traditional Christian faith.
  39. *Horatio Alger
    Horatio Alger was even more popular, since his rags-to-riches books told that virtue, honesty, and industry were rewarded by success, wealth, and honor. His most notable book was titled Ragged Dick.
  40. New Literature Themes: Crane
    Stephen Crane wrote about the seamy underside of life in urban,industrial America (prostitutes, etc.) in such books like Maggie: Girlof the Street. He also wrote The Red Badge of Courage, a tale about a Civil War soldier.
  41. New Literature Themes: Dunbar
    Paul Laurence Dunbar and Charles W. Chesnutt, two Black writers, used Black dialect and folklore in their poems an stories respectively.
  42. New Literature Themes: Dickenson
    Emily Dickinson was a famed hermit of a poet whose poems were published after her death.
  43. New Literature Themes: Twain
    Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) wrote many books, including TheAdventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, RoughingIt about the wild West, The Gilded Age (hence the term given to the eraof corruption after the Civil War) and The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.
  44. New Literary Themes: Whitman
    Walt Whitman was one of the old writers who still remained active, publishing revisions of his hardy perennial: Leaves of Grass.
  45. *Victoria Woodhull
    Victoria Woodhull proclaimed free love, and together with hersister, Tennessee Claflin, wrote Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly,which shocked readers with exposés of affairs, etc.
  46. Anthony Comstock
    Anthony Comstock waged a lifelong war on the “immoral.”
  47. New morality
    The “new morality” reflected sexual freedom in the increase of birth control, divorces, and frank discussion of sexual topics.
  48. Charlotte Perkins
    In 1898, Charlotte Perkins Gilman published Women and Economics, aclassic of feminist literature, in which she called for women toabandon their dependent status and contribute to the larger life of thecommunity through productive involvement in the economy.She also advocated day-care centers and centralized nurseries and kitchens.
  49. *National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890,
    Feminists also rallied toward suffrage, forming the NationalAmerican Woman Suffrage Association in 1890, an organization led byElizabeth Cady Stanton (who’d organized the first women’srights convention in 1848 at Seneca Falls, NY) and Susan B. Anthony.
  50. *Ida B. Wells
    Ida B. Wells rallied toward better treatment for Blacks as well and formed the National Association of Colored Women in 1896. And to stop lynching.
  51. National Prohibition Party in 1869
    Concern over the popularity (and dangers) of alcohol was alsopresent, marked by the formation of the National Prohibition Party in 1869.
  52. *Women’s Christian Temperance Union
    Other organizations like the Women’s Christian TemperanceUnion also rallied against alcohol, calling for a national prohibitionof the beverage.
  53. The Anti-Saloon League/Carrie A. Nation
    Leaders included Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation who literally wielded a hatchet and hacked up bars. The Anti-Saloon League was also formed in 1893.
  54. *18th amendment
    On the national level, the 18th Amendment (1819) was the culmination of the prohibition movement. Amendment 18 (AKA "Prohibition") simply banned alcohol in the U.S. It was short-lived. The 21st Amendment repealed the ban on alcohol.
  55. Artistic Triumphs: Eakins
    Thomas Eakins was a great realist painter.
  56. Artistic Triumphs: Gauden
    Great sculptors included Augustus Saint-Gaudens, who made the Robert Gould Shaw memorial, located in Boston in 1897.
  57. Music
    Music reached new heights with the erection of opera houses and the emergence of jazz.
  58. Phonographs
    Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, which allowed the reproduction of sounds that could be heard by listeners.
  59. Minstrel Shows
    The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the Civil War, black people in blackface. Minstrel shows lampooned black people as dim-witted, lazy, buffoonish, superstitious, happy-go-lucky, and musical.
  60. Phineas T. Barnum
    Phineas T. "P.T." Barnum (who quipped, “There’s a sucker born every minute,” and “the public likes to be humbugged.”) and James A. Bailey started the circus and adopted the slogan, "The Greatest Show on Earth".
  61. Buffalo Bill’s Wild West/Oakley
    “Wild West” shows, like those of “BuffaloBill” Cody (and the markswoman Annie Oakley who shot holesthrough tossed silver dollars) were ever-popular, and baseball andfootball became popular as well.
  62. *Indian Removal/Manifest Destiny
    The belief the United States is destined to own all land east to the Pacific Ocean. In order to do this Indians must be removed.
  63. Plains Indian Goals
    Punish whites for breaking various treaties, restore their way of life.
  64. Corruptness on Reservations
    Indians were often promised that they wouldn’t be botheredfurther after moving out of their ancestral lands, and often, Indianagents were corrupt and pawned off shoddy food and products to theirown fellow Indians.
  65. *Wounded Knee
    The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Resulted in death of 200 Native Americans.
  66. *Little Big Horn
    Colonel Custer found gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota(sacred Sioux land), and hordes of gold-seekers invaded the Siouxreservation in search of gold, causing Sitting Bull and the Sioux to goon the warpath, completely decimating Custer’s Seventh Calvary atLittle Big Horn in the process.
  67. *Ghost Dance
    Type of prayer dance to their ancestors asking for help.
  68. Chief Joseph
    The Nez Percé Indians also revolted when gold seekers madethe government shrink their reservation by 90%, and after a tortuousbattle, Chief Joseph finally surrendered his band after a long trekacross the Continental Divide toward Canada. He buried his hatchet andgave his famous speech saying, “From where the sun now stands Iwill fight no more forever.”
  69. Sitting Bull
    Chief of Sioux Indians.
  70. Geronimo
    The most difficult to subdue were the Apache tribes of Arizona andNew Mexico, led by Geronimo, but even they finally surrendered afterbeing pushed to Mexico, and afterwards, they became successful farmers.
  71. *Dawes-Severalty Act
    The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 dissolved the legal entities of alltribes, but if the Indians behaved the way Whites wanted them to behave(become farmers on reservations), they could receive full U.S.citizenship in 25 years (full citizenship to all Indians was granted in1924). Ironically, an immigrant from a foreign nation could become acitizen much, much faster than a native-born Native American.
  72. *Helen Hunt Jackson
    Sympathy for the Indians finally materialized in the 1880s, helpedin part by Helen Hunt Jackson’s book A Century of Dishonor andher novel Ramona.
  73. *Comstock Lode
    The Comstock Lode in Nevada was discovered in 1859, and a fantasticamount of gold and silver worth more than $340 million was mined.
  74. Long Drive
    The “Long Drive” emerged to become a spectacular feederof the slaughterhouses, as Texas cowboys herded cattle across desolateland to railroad terminals in Kansas.
  75. *Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act of 1862 allowed folks to get as much as 160 acresof land in return for living on it for five years, improving it, andpaying a nominal fee of about $30.00. Or, it allowed folks to get landafter only six month’s residence for $1.25 an acre.
  76. Problems in Western Farming
    160 acres was rarely enough for a family to earn a livingand survive. And often, families were forced to give up theirhomesteads before the five years were up, since droughts, bad land, andlack of necessities forced them out.
  77. Oklahoma Sooners
    In Oklahoma, the U.S. government made available land that hadformerly belonged to the Native Americans, and thousands of“Sooners” jumped the boundary line and illegally went intoOklahoma, often forcing U.S. troops to evict them.
  78. Bonanza Farms
  79. *Frontier Thesis
    (1) shaping the American character; (2) defining the American spirit; (3) fostering democracy, and (4) providing a safety valve for economic distress in urban, industrial centers
  80. Problems with farming
    Farmers operated year after year on losses and lived off their fatas best they could, but thousands of homesteads fell to mortgages andforeclosures, and farm tenancy rather than farm ownership wasincreasing.
  81. Greenback Labor party wants
    Cheap Money; Silver & Paper Money
  82. *Farmer’s Alliance wants
  83. Populist Party Successes
  84. Panic of 1893 Causes
  85. *Coxey’s Army Demands
  86. *Pullman Strike Causes/Significance
  87. *Eugene V. Debs
  88. Reasons people dislike Debs and Pullman strikers
  89. 1896 Gold vs. Silver Election
  90. *Cross of Gold Speech
  91. 1896 election was a victory for…
  92. *Dingley Tariff
  93. *Gold Standard Act

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