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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries caused by accumulation of what?
- Other peripheral blood leukocytes (T lymphocytes)
What are 2 problems of Atherosclerosis?
- B.v. get constricted and amount of blood that gets through is decreased (prob late in disease)
- Plaques rupture and release tissue factor and induce formation of clots (causes pathology)
What does endothelial cells express?
Adhesion molecules - VCAM-1
What does leukocytes express?
What are the chemokines used to attract leukocytes?
- Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1)
- T cell chemotactic factor
When monocytes become macrophages, they do what to become what?
They phagocytize lipid to become foam cells
What are the inflammatory cytokines T- Lymphocytes activate to synthesize and secrete?
- (IL-1, IL-6)
What are 6 triggers for inflammation?
- Oxidized lipoproteins
Which T cells have CD3+ on their surface?
All the T cells
T cells in atherosclerotic plaques will be most specific for?
- Apolipoprotein B
- Heat shock protein 60
- Antigens from bacteria (Chlamydia)
What stimulates Th1 maturation?
IL-12 and IL-18
What does Il-12 and IL-18 stimulate?
What do cells in plaque secrete?
IFN-y (Th1), IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, TNF (macrophages)
What does the inhibition of Th1 cells do?
Decrease plaque formation (in mice)
What does the up-regulation of Th2 cytokines do?
What are anti-inflammatory cytokines?
IL-10 and TGF-B
Blocking IL-10 and TGF-B does what to plaque formation?
Increases plaque formation
Increasing secretions of IL-10 and TGF-B does what to plaque formation?
Decreases plaque formation
What cytokines do patients at risk of atherosclerosis have?
- C-reactive Protein
- Inflammatory cytokines (IL-6)
What are some Anti-Inflammatory therapies for Atherosclerosis?