2.4 Immunobiology of Atherosclerosis

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2.4 Immunobiology of Atherosclerosis
2014-01-18 19:30:43
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  1. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries caused by accumulation of what?
    • Macrophages
    • Other peripheral blood leukocytes (T lymphocytes)
  2. What are 2 problems of Atherosclerosis?
    • B.v. get constricted and amount of blood that gets through is decreased (prob late in disease)
    • Plaques rupture and release tissue factor and induce formation of clots (causes pathology)
  3. What does endothelial cells express?
    Adhesion molecules - VCAM-1
  4. What does leukocytes express?
  5. What are the chemokines used to attract leukocytes?
    • Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1)
    • T cell chemotactic factor
  6. When monocytes become macrophages, they do what to become what?
    They phagocytize lipid to become foam cells
  7. What are the inflammatory cytokines T- Lymphocytes activate to synthesize and secrete?
    • Interferon-gamma
    • TNF
    • (IL-1, IL-6)
  8. What are 6 triggers for inflammation?
    • Oxidized lipoproteins
    • Dyslipidemia
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • Obesity
    • Infection
  9. Which T cells have CD3+ on their surface?
    All the T cells
  10. T cells in atherosclerotic plaques will be most specific for?
    • Apolipoprotein B
    • Heat shock protein 60
    • Antigens from bacteria (Chlamydia)
  11. What stimulates Th1 maturation?
    IL-12 and IL-18
  12. What does Il-12 and IL-18 stimulate?
    Th1 maturation
  13. What do cells in plaque secrete?
    IFN-y (Th1), IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, TNF (macrophages)
  14. What does the inhibition of Th1 cells do?
    Decrease plaque formation (in mice)
  15. What does the up-regulation of Th2 cytokines do?
    Decrease plaques
  16. What are anti-inflammatory cytokines?
    IL-10 and TGF-B
  17. Blocking IL-10 and TGF-B does what to plaque formation?
    Increases plaque formation
  18. Increasing secretions of IL-10 and TGF-B does what to plaque formation?
    Decreases plaque formation
  19. What cytokines do patients at risk of atherosclerosis have?
    • C-reactive Protein
    • Inflammatory cytokines (IL-6)
  20. What are some Anti-Inflammatory therapies for Atherosclerosis?
    • Colchicine
    • Darapladib
    • Anti-IL-1
    • Methotrexate