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What is Memory?
is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information.
clear memory of a significant moment or event But this is not free from error
In computers, this Memory process is sequential this is differnt from humans because
brain can do many things at once—in parallel.
Atkinson & Shriffrin’s
Alan Baddeley (2002) proposes that ____ memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled
by the central executive through an episodic buffer.
Effortful learning usually requires
rehearsal or conscious repetition.
Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using _____ ____
TUV YOF GEK XOZ
The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on
Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2. this is an example of...
- When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot
- remember what the person just before you in line says, but you can recall what
- other people around you say.
- We retain information better when we break up
- rehearsal over time
- When your recall is better for first and last items on a
- list, but poor for middle items.
How do we encode, what do we encode
- by organization
Mental pictures (imagery)
are a powerful aid to
especially when combined
Talk about the effectiveness of Visual encoding
- Mental pictures (imagery)
- are a powerful aid to
- effortful processing,
- especially when combined
- with semantic encoding.
- Concrete words (typewriter, chair) are easier
- to remember than abstract words (process, inherent), because they more easily
- create a mental image.
Imagery is at the
heart of many memory aids. _____ techniques use vivid imagery in aiding
two theories are...
Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit.
______ are another way of chunking information to remember it.
- Complex information broken down into broad concepts and
- further subdivided into categories and subcategories
describe Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy
Types of Storage are
- Sensory memory
- Iconic memory
- Echoic memory
- Working/short-term memory
- Long-term memory
Consists of brief visual images, the visual sensory memory consisting of a perfect photograpic memory, which lasts no mrore than a few thenths of a second
the momentary sensory memory of auditory stimull, lasting about 3 or 4 seconds
the newer way of conceptualizing short-term memory as a work site for the active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information, and the infoormation retreived from long-term memory
The capacity of the working memory may be increased by “Chunking”:
conscious memory, which can hold about seven items for a short time
the relatively permanent and unlimited capacity memory system into which information from short term memory may pass
More about Long term memory
- We have an unlimited capacity for
- long-term memory storage. Estimates on capacity range
- from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information.
- But we do not store information with the
- exactness of a tape recorder—forgetting occurs as new experiences interfere
- with our retrieval as the physical memory trace decays.
- Memories are not stored in a specific part of
- the brain (Lashley, 1950)
- refers to synaptic enhancement after learning.
- An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on
- the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.
Explain the effects of Stress Hormones on Memory
- Heightened emotions
- (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories.
- More glucose
- available to fuel the brain.
- Activity in the amygdala can sear events into
- the brain.
- dramatic experiences are more likely to be
- But, prolonged,
- continued stress may
- disrupt memory.
- refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously
- know and declare.
Implicit memory or procedural memory
- involves learning an action
- while the individual does not consciously recollect learning.
Break down long term memory
a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories
a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.
After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM)
remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We
call this _____ ______
HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit).
(inability to remember events before brain damage) can occur when the damage
interferes with the processing of memory for long-term storage.
In ______, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test
In ____, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test
In _____, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for
the second time.
anchor points you can use to access the target information.
To retrieve a specific memory from the web of
associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This
process is called _____
what we learn in one state is more recognizable in a similar state
- people tend to recall
- experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood (good or bad).
- For example, being
- depressed primes negative associations.
explain Déja Vu
- If we have previously been in a similar situation, the
- current situation may be loaded with cues that unconsciously retrieve the
- earlier experience
an inability to retrieve information due to:
- Poor durability of
- stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his
- forgetting curve.
- Forgetting is
- initially rapid, then levels off.
example of Storage Decay
Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining Spanish over 50 years.
- Although the information is retained in the memory
- store, it cannot be accessed
- (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon.
- makes blood cells red?
- Given a cue (the word
- begins with an H), we may retrieve the
- memory (hemoglobin).