Biology Test (Cancer info) Jan. 16

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Biology Test (Cancer info) Jan. 16
2014-01-16 06:21:26

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  1. What is cancer?
    Loss of control of normal cell growth & division
  2. Apoptosis
    Loss of a cell's ability to undergo cell suicide/ death (old/damaged cells naturally break down in body)
  3. Tumors or Neoplasms
    • -Mass of cells
    • -Cell growth/ division is rapid
    • -No signals for cell death
  4. Benign tumor
    • -Cannot spread
    • -Grows locally
    • -Non-cancerous
  5. Malignant tumor
    • -Cancerous; draws it's own blood supply for needed nutrients & oxygen to continue to grow & divide uncontrollably¬†
    • -Capable of spreading by invading nearby tissues or metastasis
  6. Metastasis
    Cells from tumor break away from original site and travel via bloodstream or lymphatic system to adjacent tissue/ organs or far away organs (this is how cancer spreads through the body; becomes very dangerous)
  7. Biopsy
    Surgical removal of a sample of affected cells & tissue or blood from the body to examine under the microscope
  8. Causes of Cancers
    • -Environmental factors (chemicals, radiation)
    • -Genes (diet, hormones)¬†
    • -Viruses & Bacteria¬†
    • -Carcinogen (cancer causing agent)
  9. Carcinogen
    Cancer causing agent
  10. Pap Test
    (For females): to detect cervical cancer (cervix)
  11. Mammogram
    To detect breast cancer
  12. Colonoscopy
    To detect colon cancer
  13. PSA
    (For males) to detect prostate cancer
  14. Oncogenes
    Genes, if present, in certain forms can stimulate the development of cancer; can signal normal cells to make proteins that stimulate excessive cell growth & division
  15. Tumor suppressor genes
    • -Normal genes who's ABSENCE can lead to cancer; if these genes are affected by mutation then the development of cancer is possible
    • -These cells are inherited so if they are defective they can lead to cancer
  16. p53
    • -a protein that is coded for by a tumor suppressor gene
    • -can trigger cell death; if a cell has damaged DNA , p53 can stop cell growth & division & cause cell death
    • -p53 can prevent uncontrolled cell growth & division