Chapter 4 & 5

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Chapter 4 & 5
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  1. Tissues:
    Groups of cells similar in structure that perform common or related function
  2. Histology
    Study of tissues
  3. Types of primary tissue
    • •Epithelial tissue
    • –Covers

    • •Connective tissue
    • –Supports

    • •Muscle tissue
    • –Produces movement

    • •Nerve tissue
    • –Controls
  4. Epithelial Tissue
    Form boundaries.
  5. Two main types of epithelial tissue (by location)
    • Covering and lining epithelia
    • &
    • Glandular epithelia
  6. What are the six epithelial tissue functions?
    • •Protection
    • •Absorption
    • •Filtration
    • •Excretion
    • •Secretion
    • •Sensory reception
  7. Five characteristics of epithelial tissue:
    • •Polarity
    • •Specialized contacts
    • •Supported by connective tissues
    • •Avascular,but innervated
    • •Can regenerate
  8. Epithethial cells: polarity: two layers
    –Apical surface (upper free) exposed to exterior or cavity

    –Basal surface (lower, attached)

    –Both surfaces differ in structure and function
  9. Apical surface
    Most have microvilli (brush border of the intestinal lining) or cilia (trachea)
  10. Basal layer of epithelial tissue
    Noncellular basal lamina:

    •    -glycoprotein
    •    -scaffolding for cell migration in wound repair
    •    -adhesive sheet
    •    -selective filter
  11. Specialized Contacts (Epithelial tissue)
    The covering and lining of epithelial tissue fit closely together forming continuous sheets.

    • They bind adjacent cells.
    • -desmosomes
    • -tight junctions
  12. Connective Tissue Support (epithelial tissue)
    • basement membrane:
    • 1.resists stretching and tearing,
    • 2.basal lamina + reticular lamina,
    • 3.reinforces the epithelial sheet

    reticular lamina: network of collagen fibers
  13. What does avascular but innervated mean?
    • Nerves are present, but no blood vessels.
    • Ex. paper cuts: pain; but no bleeding
  14. Regeneration (epithelial tissue)
    High regeneration; if adequate, nutrients can replace lost cells by cell division.
  15. How is Epithelial Tissue classified?
    By two names:

    • The first name indicates number of cell layers:
    • simple: one layer
    • stratified: two layers

    • the second name indicates cell shape:
    • squamous: pentagon-looking
    • cuboidal: cube-like
    • columnar: long, thin columns
  16. Describe a squamous cell
    Flattened nucleus; looks scale-like
  17. Describe a cuboidal cell
    Looks like a cube; nucleus is round
  18. Describe columnar cells
    nucleus is elongated; long and column-like
  19. Characteristics of simple epithelia
    • -Absorption
    • -Secretion
    • -Filtration
    • -very thin
    • Name: Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Function: Rapid diffusion
    • Location: kidneys, lungs
  20. Two other locations of simple squamous epithelium
    • –Endothelium
    •   •The lining of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and heart

    • –Mesothelium
    •   •The epithelium of serous membranes in the ventral body cavity
    • NameSimple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Function: Secretion and Absorption
    • Location: Kidney tubules; ducts of secretory glands
    • Name: Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • Function: Absorption and Secretion of mucous
    • Location: non-ciliated type lines most of the digestive tract and gallbladder; ciliated type lines small bronchi
    • Name: pseduostratified squamous epithelium
    • Function: Protects underlying tissue from abrasion
    • Location: keratinized forms the dry skin, nonkeratinized forms the moist linings of the vagina, mouth, esophagus.
  21. Transitional Epithelium
    • Function: It can change shape because of distention; stretches readily, permits stored urine to distend urinary organ
    • Location: lines the ureters, bladders, and part of the urethra.
  22. Gland
    One or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion
  23. Exocrine
    Secretes outside
  24. Endocrine
    Secretes within
  25. Endocrine glands
    Ductless glands; secrete hormones through exocytosis and travels in lymphs or blood to their target organs
  26. what organ has exocrine and endocrine functions?
    pancreas
  27. exocrine glands
    Secrete products into ducts, onto body surfaces (skin) or body cavities (pancreas).  Secretes things such as oil (sebum), sweat, mucous, etc.
  28. Unicellular exocrine glands
    The only important unicellular glands are mucous cells and goblet cells.

    Found in epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tracts.  All Produce mucin.
  29. mucin
    protective slimy, lubricating coat
  30. What are the three types of secretion
    • merocrine
    • holocrine
    • apocrine
  31. Apocrine Secretion
    • Accumulates products within but only apex ruptures – controversy if exist in
    • humans
  32. Holocrine Secretion
    Accumulate products within then rupture
  33. Merocrine Secretion
    Most – secrete products by exocytosis as produced
  34. What glands secrete oil
    Sebacious glands
  35. what glands secretes sweat
    sudoriferous glands
  36. Connective Tissue
    The most abundant type of tissue
  37. Four main classes of connective tissue
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Blood
  38. What are the subclasses for Connective Tissue Proper
    Loose and Dense
  39. What are the subclasses of Connective Tissue Proper: Loose
    Adipose, areolar, and reticular
  40. What are the subclasses of Connective Tissue Proper: Dense
    Regular, irregular, and elastic
  41. What are the three types of Cartilage
    Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage
  42. What are the two subclasses of Bone
    Compact bone and spongy bone
  43. What are the major functions of Connective Tissue
    • •Binding and support
    • •Protecting
    • •Insulating
    • •Storing reserve fuel
    • •Transporting substances (blood)
  44. What are the three characteristics that make Connective tissue different from other primary tissues
    • -Mesenchyme
    • -varying degrees of vascularity
    • -ECM (extracellular matrix)
  45. Mesenchyme
    an embryonic tissue (common tissue of origin of connective tissues)
  46. ECM
    extracellular matrix 

    • •Connective tissue not composed mainly of cells
    • •Largely nonliving extracellular matrix separates cells
    •      -So can bear weight, withstand tension, endure abuse
  47. What are the three structural elements of connective tissue
    fibers, cells, and ground substance
  48. Ground Substance
    unstructured material that fills space between cells (medium through which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and cells).

    • components:
    • -interstitial fluid
    • -cell adhesion proteins (glue)
    • -proteoglycans (protein core and polysaccharides trap water in varying amounts)
  49. What are the three types of Connective Tissue Fibers
    Collagen, Elastic, and Reticular
  50. Collagen Connective Tissue Fiber
    Strongest and most abundant type of connective tissue fiber; tough and provides high tensile strength
  51. Elastic connective tissue fibers
    network of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch and recoil
  52. Reticular connective tissue fibers
    short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers; they branch forming networks to add "give"

    ex. "give" pulling the skin on your arm, letting go, and having the skin go back into place.
  53. blast
    immature; its going to grow and build
  54. cyte
    cell
  55. fibroblasts
    connective tissue fiber cells (immature)
  56. chondroblasts
    cartilage cells (immature)
  57. osteoblasts
    bone cells (immature)
  58. Hematopoietic
    bone marrow cells (blasts)
  59. chondrocytes
    mature cells in cartilage
  60. osteocyte
    mature cells in bone
  61. Four other cell types found in connective tissue
    mast cells, fat cells, white blood cells, macrophages
  62. mast cell
    Initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganisms they detect 

    ex. if you cut yourself, they will be there to secrete inflammatory fluid
  63. fat cells
    store nutrients
  64. white blood cells
    tissue response to injury; help with the immune response
  65. macrophages
    • (big eater) Phagocytic cells that "eat" dead cells, microorganisms; function in immune
    • system
    • Name: Areolar loose connective tissue proper
    • Function: wraps and cushions organs
    • Location: widely distributed under the epithelia of the body; capillaries
    • Name: Adipose loose connective tissue proper
    • Function: store food fuel nutrients, insulation
    • Location: abdomen, breasts,
    • Name: Reticular loose connective tissue proper
    • Function: supports free blood cells in the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow.
    • Location: lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow
    • Name: Regular dense connective tissue proper
    • Function: attaches muscles to bone, or muscles to muscles
    • Location: tendons and most ligaments
    • Name: Irregular dense connective tissue proper
    • Function: withstands tension exerted in many different directions
    • Location: shoulder joint, dermis of the skin
    • Name: Elastic dense connective tissue proper
    • Function: allows tissue to recoil after stretching
    • Location: walls of large arteries, within the walls of the bronchial tubes
  66. Is cartilage vascular or avascular
    avascular; receives nutrients from membrane surrounding it
    • Name:  hyaline cartilage
    • Function: resists compressive stress
    • Location: cartilage of the nose and trachea
    • Name: fibrocartilage
    • Function: tensile strength allows it to absorb compressive shock
    • Location: intervertebral discs, discs of knee joint.
    • Name: elastic cartilage
    • Function: maintains the shape of the structure while allowing a ton of flexibility
    • Location: the external ear, epiglottis
  67. Osseous tissue is another name for
    bone
    • Name: osseous tissue
    • Function: stores calcium and fat; site for blood formation
    • Location: bone
    • Name: blood
    • Function: transport respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, etc.
    • Location: contained in blood vessels
  68. What are the three types of muscle tissue
    Skeletal muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and smooth muscle tissue
    • Name: skeletal muscle tissue
    • Function: facial expressions; voluntary control
    • Location: in skeletal muscles attached to bone or skin
    • Name: cardiac muscle tissue
    • Function: involuntary; when it contracts, it propels blood into circulation
    • Location: the walls of the heart
    • Name: smooth muscle tissue
    • Function: propels substances or objects through passageways (babies, food, etc.)
    • Location: mostly in the walls of hollow organs
  69. what two muscle tissues are involuntarily used, but can be manipulated
    smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue
  70. Nervous tissue
    the main component of the nervous system (spinal chord, brain, nerves).  It regulates and controls body functions.

    2 parts: neurons and neuroglia
  71. Neurons
    Specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses
  72. Neuroglia
    Supporting cells that support, insulate, and protect neurons
    • Name: nervous tissue
    • Function: neurons transmit electrical signals from receptors to effectors which control their activity
    • Location: everywhere in the body; brain, spinal chord, nerves.
  73. Covering and Lining Membranes
    are composed of at least two primary tissue types
  74. what are the three types of membranes
    cutaneous membrane, serous membrane, and mucous membrane
  75. cutaneous membrane
    skin; (epidermis) keratinized squamous connective tissue is connected to a thick layer of connective tissue (dermis)
  76. mucous membrane
    mucosa; indicates location, not cell type.  All called mucosae : lines body cavities that are open to exterior (digestive, respiratory tract, etc)
  77. serous membrane
    parietal serosa lines body cavity, visceral serosa covers the body organ, with serous fluid (serosa) between the layers
  78. tissue repair occurs in two different ways:
    regeneration and fibrosis
  79. regeneration
    same kind of tissue replaces the old tissue and original function is restored
  80. fibrosis
    connective tissue replaces old tissue and original function is lost
  81. what are the steps in tissue repair (3 steps)
    • 1. inflammation
    • 2. tissue repair
    • 3. regeneration and fibrosis
  82. what tissues regenerate really well
    epithelial, bone, areolar connective tissue, blood-forming tissue
  83. what tissues regenerate moderately well
    smooth muscle, and dense regular connective tissue
  84. what tissues have virtually no regenerating capacity
    cardiac muscle and nervous tissue of the brain and spinal chord
  85. integumentary system
    skin
  86. Skin consists of two major regions
    • epidermis: the superficial layer
    • dermis: underlies epidermis
  87. epidermis
    composed of epithethial tissue
  88. dermis
    composed mostly of connective tissue
  89. hypodermis
    superficial fascia; not part of the skin but shares some function; subcutaneous
  90. what are the four or five distinct layers of epidermis
    • –Stratum basale
    • –Stratum spinosum
    • –Stratum granulosum
    • –Stratum lucid (only in thick skin)
    • –Stratum corneum
  91. what are the four different cell types found in the epidermis
    • –Keratinocytes
    • –Melanocytes
    • –Dendritic (langerhans) cells
    • –Tactile (merkel) cells
  92. stratum basale layer
    deepest epidermal layer; cells die as they move towards the superficial layer (25-40 days time); highly mitotic; single row of stem cells
  93. stratum spinoseum
    • several layers thick; Cells contain web-like system of intermediate prekeratin
    • filaments attached to desmosomes; Abundant melanosomes and dendritic cells
  94. stratum granulosum
    thin --only four to six layers; cells flatten, keratinization begins, cells above this layer die, last state before cells are considered dead.
  95. stratum lucidum
    only in thick skin
  96. stratum corneum
    20-30 rows of dead cells, three quarters of the epidermis thickness, important layers as protection even though the cells are dead, inhibits penetration of foreign substances
  97. cell differentiation in the epidermis
    controlled cell suicide, shed 50,000 cells every hour, nucleus and organelles break down, comes off as dander
  98. apoptosis
    controlled cell suicide
  99. where are the tactile and dendritic cells found
    stratum basale
  100. what are the two layers of the dermis
    Papillary layer and reticular layer
  101. which is the thickest layer of the dermis
    reticular layer
  102. papillary layer
    Areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels, dermal papillae (peg like projections)
  103. dermal papillae
    most contain free nerve endings; contain friction ridges (fingerprints)
  104. reticular layer of the dermis
    80% of the dermis layer; dense fibrous connective tissue, has stretch-recoil properties, cleavage lines (used for plastic surgery to minimize scarring)
  105. flexure lines
    dermal folds near or at joints (think of fingers bending)
  106. striae
    stretch marks
  107. blister
    from acute trauma, fluid-filled pockets that separate the dermis from the epidermis
  108. what three pigments contribute to skin color
    melanin, hemoglobin, and carotene
  109. what are the two forms of melanin
    reddish-yellow and brownish-black
  110. what are freckles and moles
    localized accumulations of melanin
  111. where is melanin produced
    in melanocytes
  112. how is skin color determined in people
    amount of melanin produced; we all have the same amount of melanocytes
  113. what are bruises
    clotted blood beneath the skin
  114. jaundice (yellow)
    liver disorder
  115. pallor (blanching)
    anemia
  116. cyanosis
    blue skin, low oxygen in the blood
  117. appendages of the skin
    • -hair and hair follicles
    • -nails
    • -sweat glands
    • -oil glands
  118. what are the two main types of sweat glands
    apocrine and eccrine
  119. eccrine sweat gland
    abundant on palms, feet, and forehead; most abundant type
  120. apocrine sweat gland
    begins functioning at puberty, larger than eccrine glands, ducts empty into hair follicles
  121. sebaceous glands
    secrete sebum, don't really function until after puberty
  122. what are the main functions of the integumentary system
    • -Protection
    • •Body temperature regulation
    • •Cutaneous sensation
    • •Metabolic functions
    • •Blood reservoir
    • •Excretion
  123. what are the three types of barriers
    chemical barrier, physical barrier, and biological barrier
  124. chemical barriers
    melanin defends the skin against UV rays
  125. physical barrier
    layers of dead skin cells on the epidermis protect from penetration with the exception of things like poison ivy.
  126. biological barrier
    • –Dendritic cells of epidermis
    •     •Present foreign antigens to white blood cells
    • –Macrophages of dermis
    •     •Present foreign antigens to white blood cells
  127. how many ml of water does the body lose in one day (insensible perspiration)
    500 ml
  128. insensible and sensible perspiration is an example of what
    body temperature regulation
  129. cutaneous functions
    part of the nervous system, can detect touch
  130. metabolic functions
    synthesis of vitamin D (sunlight helps)
  131. blood resevoir
    up to 5% of the body's blood volume
  132. excretion
    nitrogenous waste in salts and sweats
  133. what is another word for spread
    metastisize
  134. what are three major types of skin cancer
    basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma,
  135. what is the most common type of skin cancer
    basal cell carcinoma
  136. what is the second most common skin cancer
    squamous cell carcinoma
  137. which cancer is resistant to chemotherapy
    melanoma
  138. what does the rule of nines do
    helps evaluate the amount of fluid lost
  139. what are the immediate threats of burns
    dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
  140. what are the three types of burns
    first degree, second degree, and third degree
  141. first degree burn
    redness in a specified area (sunburn)
  142. second degree burn
    blisters appear, and there is localized damage to the epidermis and superficial dermis. (blister separates the two layers)
  143. third degree burn
    no pain is felt, because there is nerve damage. skin grafting is usually necessary
  144. describe a circumferential burn and treatment
    when the burn goes all around a specified area (ie. the forearm), which can cut off blood circulation to part located distally.  treatment is amputation or cutting the burns and skin open to allow for blood flow

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