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What is meta-cognition ?
To know about your own cognition
What did Roediger & Karpicke's (2006) study?
What did Roediger & Karpicke's (2006) study consist of?
What did they find?
- Reading 2 articles (sun & otters)
- Creates two groups (two study sessions with material vs one study session and one test session)
- Both split into 3 groups (day test, 2 day test, week later test)
- Found that you have a slight advantage (study, study) when being tested 5 minutes to (study, test) but 2 days - 1 week (study, test) is better
- Shows this correlation no matter how many times you study or test with amount of time being studied after
What was the Testing Effect in Roediger & Karpicke's study?
- Testing yourself correlates with higher recall on later testing
- Probes memory
- Accessing memory IMPROVES memory
What is Cognition ?
Information from the outside world is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used
What is Psychophysics ?
- Sensory environment effects our thought process
- How environment becomes part of our intelligence
Who are the great minds within Psychophysics ?
What were Ernst Weber's & Gustav Fechner's thoughts?
- Physics of the world are different then how we interpret them
- Are not perfect processors
What were Hermann Helmholtz thoughts?
Look at central nervous system & how long it takes information to go from neuron to neuron
What were Sir Francis Galton's thoughts?
Statistics in how our behavior relates to other things (ex. intelligence to physical features)
Who were the minds of Structuralism ?
What did Wundt accomplish ?
- First experimental laboratory done on undergrads
- Give them an object & think of all things relating to the object -> understand structure of our cognition
What is Introspection ?
Where the psychiatrist allows the patient to talk about how they feel & what they think their problems are and how to solve them
What did Titchener accomplish?
Brought Structuralism to the US
Who was the mind of Functionalism ?
What did he accomplish ?
- Need to understand function of the processes
- Understand why we have information based on function
Who was behind the Gestalt Movement ?
What did he think ?
- Results of both Structure + Function
- " The whole is more than the sum of its parts"
- Understanding a part does not tell us the whole
What was the Behaviorist Movement ?
- Movement in response to general state of psychology
- Cognitive science begain
- Growing interest for the government & military to create good soldiers
Who were the minds behind Behaviorism ?
What is Anti-Introspection ?
Not letting the participants talk about what they think is wrong
What is the Black Box ?
- Your brain is a Black Box & it responds to the environment
- (Stimulus + Response)
Describe Pavlov's Classical Conditioning ?
- Unconditioned Stimulus (Food)
- Unconditioned Response (Saliva)
- Conditioned Stimulus (Bell)
- Conditioned Response (Saliva)
Criticism of Behavior ?
- We are more than Stimulus + Response
- We show a process of thinking
What is Neuroanatomy about ?
Structure of the brain