Chapter 17 Blood

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Anonymous
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256584
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Chapter 17 Blood
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2014-01-14 23:39:38
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Blood eyrthrocytes leukocytes thrombocytes
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A&PII Chapter 17 Blood
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  1. What characteristics of blood classify it as a connective tissue?
    It is composed of cells and matrix (ground substance and fibers)
  2. Name characteristics of blood
    • pH of 7.35-7.45
    • Temperature of 38C (100F)
    • 8% of body weight
  3. How much blood is in the average adult?
    • Men 5-6 liters
    • Women 4-5 liters
  4. What are the major functions of blood?
    • Regulation
    • Distribution
    • Protection
  5. What does blood regulate?
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Fluid Volume
  6. What does blood distribute?
    • Gases (oxygen, carbon monoxide)
    • Hormones
    • Metabolic waste
  7. How does blood protect?
    Prevents blood loss via hemastasis, and infection
  8. What are the two major components of blood and list their relative percentages?
    • Erythrocytes 45%
    • Plasma 54%
    • (Leukocytes 1%)
  9. What are the proteins found in plasma and list their relative percentages?
    • Albumin 60%
    • Globulins 36%
    • Fibrinogen 4%
  10. What is the function of albumin?
    Maintains blood's osmotic pressure and buffers
  11. What is the function of globulins?
    Transports ions, hormones, and things with low solubility
  12. What is the function of fibrinogen?
    Forms fibrin threads of blood clot
  13. List characteristics of erthrocytes
    • 7.5 μm diameter and 2.5 μm thickness
    • Biconcave discs
    • 4-5 x 106 cells/mm3
  14. What is the committed cell the forms erthrocytes?
    Proerythroblast
  15. What regulates erythropoiesis?
    Erythropoietin (EPO) responding to hypoxia
  16. Where in the body does phagocytosis of damaged RBCs occur?
    Liver and spleen
  17. What are the major groups of leukocytes?
    Granulocytes and agranulocytes
  18. What are the granulocytes and list their relative percentages of WBCs?
    • Neutrophils 50-70%
    • Eosinophils 2-4%
    • Basophils <1%
  19. What are the aganulocytes and list their relative percentages of WBCs?
    • Lymphocytes 20-30%
    • Monocytes 3-8%
  20. What do neutrophils do?
    • Phagocytosis of fungi and bacteria
    • Increase in numbers during infection (examples appendicitis and meningitis)
  21. What do eosinophils do?
    • Phagocytosis of antigen antibody complexes
    • Inflammation
    • Release of enzymes that destroy parasitic worms
  22. What do basophils do?
    Release of histamine to dilate BV and heparin to prevent clotting
  23. What do lymphocytes do?
    • T lymphocytes attack viruses and tumor cells
    • B lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells
  24. What do monocytes do?
    Differentiate into macrophages in tissues
  25. What committed cell forms the granulocytes?
    Myeloblasts
  26. What committed cells form monocytes?
    Monoblasts
  27. What committed cell forms lymphocytes?
    Lymphoblasts
  28. What committed cell forms platelets?
    Megakaryoblasts
  29. What regulates leukopoiesis?
    • Interleukins (IL)
    • Colony stimulating factors (CSF)
  30. What are the major phases of hemostasis?
    • Vascular phase
    • Platelet phase
    • Coagulation phase
  31. What regulates thrombopoiesis?
    Thrombopoietin

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