Chapter 17 Blood
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What characteristics of blood classify it as a connective tissue?
It is composed of cells and matrix (ground substance and fibers)
Name characteristics of blood
- pH of 7.35-7.45
- Temperature of 38C (100F)
- 8% of body weight
How much blood is in the average adult?
- Men 5-6 liters
- Women 4-5 liters
What are the major functions of blood?
What does blood regulate?
- Fluid Volume
What does blood distribute?
- Gases (oxygen, carbon monoxide)
- Metabolic waste
How does blood protect?
Prevents blood loss via hemastasis, and infection
What are the two major components of blood and list their relative percentages?
- Erythrocytes 45%
- Plasma 54%
- (Leukocytes 1%)
What are the proteins found in plasma and list their relative percentages?
- Albumin 60%
- Globulins 36%
- Fibrinogen 4%
What is the function of albumin?
Maintains blood's osmotic pressure and buffers
What is the function of globulins?
Transports ions, hormones, and things with low solubility
What is the function of fibrinogen?
Forms fibrin threads of blood clot
List characteristics of erthrocytes
- 7.5 μm diameter and 2.5 μm thickness
- Biconcave discs
- 4-5 x 106 cells/mm3
What is the committed cell the forms erthrocytes?
What regulates erythropoiesis?
Erythropoietin (EPO) responding to hypoxia
Where in the body does phagocytosis of damaged RBCs occur?
Liver and spleen
What are the major groups of leukocytes?
Granulocytes and agranulocytes
What are the granulocytes and list their relative percentages of WBCs?
- Neutrophils 50-70%
- Eosinophils 2-4%
- Basophils <1%
What are the aganulocytes and list their relative percentages of WBCs?
- Lymphocytes 20-30%
- Monocytes 3-8%
What do neutrophils do?
- Phagocytosis of fungi and bacteria
- Increase in numbers during infection (examples appendicitis and meningitis)
What do eosinophils do?
- Phagocytosis of antigen antibody complexes
- Release of enzymes that destroy parasitic worms
What do basophils do?
Release of histamine to dilate BV and heparin to prevent clotting
What do lymphocytes do?
- T lymphocytes attack viruses and tumor cells
- B lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells
What do monocytes do?
Differentiate into macrophages in tissues
What committed cell forms the granulocytes?
What committed cells form monocytes?
What committed cell forms lymphocytes?
What committed cell forms platelets?
What regulates leukopoiesis?
- Interleukins (IL)
- Colony stimulating factors (CSF)
What are the major phases of hemostasis?
- Vascular phase
- Platelet phase
- Coagulation phase
What regulates thrombopoiesis?
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