# O&P General

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1. Define inductance.
Induced voltage opposite applied voltage.
2. What does inductive and capacitance reactance cause?
Opposition to current flow in AC circuits.
3. What represents capacitance in AC Circuits?
Capacitors
4. What is the nature of capacitors?
They serve as storage devices.
5. Why should Ni-Cad and lead acid batteries not be stored together?
They are chemically opposite and can neutralize each other.
6. Name the basic elements of a circuit.
The Source, Load, and Conductors.
7. What is Ohm's Law
E=IxR
8. Name the elements of Ohm's Law
• E = Voltage
• I = Current
• R = Resistance
9. What is DC power measured in
Watts
10. Name the three types of DC circuits
• Series
• Parallel
• Series-Parallel (complex)
11. What happens in a DC circuit if the voltage increases, but the resistance remains the same?
the current flow will increase
12. What could be the problem if a NI-Cad fails to deliver?
a cell imbalance or bad cell
13. What are the advantages of AC?
It can be transmitted more readily over long distance and AC can be stepped up or down by transformers.
14. What are some things a multimeter can be use to check?
Amps, Volts, Ohms
15. What is impedance?
Z - The total opposition to current flow in a circuit.
16. How many cells are in a 24 volt battery?
12 cells (2v each)
17. what is the specific gravity of charged lead acid battery?
1.275 - 1.300
18. What are the effects temperature has on the specific gravity of a lead acid battery?
Anything above or below 80 degree F must be corrected with conversion chart.
19. Why is no specific gravity check done on Ni-Cad batteries?
• there is no real change of the specific gravity during charge or discharge of a Ni-cad
• battery.
20. Name the information found in the title block of a drawing.
• Part Number
• Name of the part
• scale
• date
• firm name
• draftsmen
• checker
• approving person
21. What line is used to indicate an alternate position.
• the phantom line
• one long and two short dashes
22. What line is used to illustrate hidden views?
• A hidden line.
• short dashes with even spaces.
23. what line is used to illustrate centers of objects?
• A center line
• Long and Short dashes
24. What line is used to size objects?
• A dimension line.
• A solid line broken at center point for dimensions.
25. Drawing changes are indicate how?
Revisions on columns near title block.
26. What is tolerance?
A tolerance is a plus or minus allowance
27. What is clearance?
A space between parts
28. What is BOM
a "bill of Materials" or listing of materials for the part on the drawing.
29. Why are symbols used on drawings?
They serve as a short hand and reduce the complexity of the drawing.
30. how may a drawing show most detail?
By drawing a detail view at a larger scale than the principal view.
31. What is the purpose for one view drawings?
Shows objects of uniform thickness.
32. What are schematics used for?
Troubleshooting purposes
33. What is an orthographic drawing?
A drawing showing different views at right angles.
34. What is the primary purpose for computing weight and balance?
Safety
35. How do you arrive at a moment?
Multiply the weight times the arm.
36. What are the results of an excessive forward center of gravity?
Instability and difficulty flying.
37. how do you compensate for equipment installed in out of the CG range?
Install Ballast
38. What is the datum?
Station 0 or the point from which all horizontal measurements are taken.
39. Define tare weight
any weight added to the scales to stabilize the aircraft, but not part of the aircraft weight.
40. How is the ARM obtained>
through specifications or a measurement from the datum to the object
41. What is necessary when the weight and balance records are missing
Reweigh the aircraft
42. How do we treat new equipment added to an aircraft
compute weight and balance mathematically
43. what is done with fuel in weight and balance?
The fuel is drained or topped off and computed in the weight and balance.
44. how do you get a ( + ) moment aft of datum?
by adding weight.
45. how do you get a ( - ) moment in front of the datum?
by adding weight
46. What is done with all equipment not permanently installed?
take out
47. What is a loading graph
a way to determine the CG at a glance
48. What is residual fuel
Fuel left in the system after draining
49. Define ballast
weight added to an aircraft to correct the CG
50. Name some common leveling methods
level and leveling means or protractor or a plumb bob
51. how does a plane's CG range compare to a helicopters CG range?
A helicopter has a smaller range
52. Why is aircraft category a factor in weight and balance
differing categories have different gross weights and CG ranges.
53. Define MAC
Mean Aerodynamic Chord
54. Name two ways to show CG or CG range
Inches from datum or percentage of mean aerodynamic chord.
55. name the two types of fluid lines used on aircraft
metal and flexible lines
56. how are metal lines sized? what increments are used?
Metal lines are sized by O.D. in sixteenth inch and wall thickness in thousandths of an inch
57. what markings are found on flexible hoses?
size, manufacturing date, pressure range and temperature limits.
58. identify the features of flare tube fittings
there is a shoulder between end of threads and flare cone and the fittings are usually blue.
59. what de-burring caution should be exercised?
do not reduce wall thickness
60. name the parts of a standard flareless fitting
the body, sleeve, and nut
61. name two kinds of flares
single and double
62. what is the advantage of flexible teflon
high temperature and pressure ranges. compatibility with many chemicals.
63. how are flexible hoses sized?
I.D. one sixteenths increments
64. how do Q.D.'s (quick disconnects) work?
valve and spring
65. how do you determine if a line is twisted on install
ID stripe or lay line running the length of the hose.
66. how much longer should a flexible line be when fabricating a new line?
5-8% longer than required to reach the fittings
67. what happens to an over torqued flareless tube fitting
the nut drives cutting edge of sleeve too deep into the tubing causing the tube to weaken
68. what fitting should be used on stainless lines?
stainless
69. how should metal oil, fuel, and hydraulic lines be installed
clamped and bonded
70. what is the purpose of a quick disconnect (QD)
quick, no fluid loss, no air or debris entering system
71. what is the difference between AN and AC flared fittings?
Sleeve length, thread pitch, AN has a shoulder between thread and cone, overall length, color
72. what is the purpose of a sleeve on a flared tube fitting?
the sleeve draws tubing flare tightly against the male fitting
73. visual differences between flareless fitting and flared fitting?
No flare cone and no space between threads and fitting
74. Effects of over torque on flare fittings
damages flare causing weak point
75. what does the magnetic particle process consist of
magnetizing part, apply ferromagnetic particles, particles will for a pattern on the surface.
76. What NDT could be used to check for surface cracks in aluminum fittings?
• Dye Penetrant
• X-Ray
• Eddy Current
• Ultrasonic
• Visual
77. what occurs at preparation when penetrant is applied and removed from a part?
Penetrant enters crack and stays. Developer is applied to make crack visible.
78. list the steps used for dye penetrant procedure
• clean
• apply penetrant
• remove penetrant
• dry
• apply developer
• inspect for results
79. how are bolts identified
code markings on heads
80. what do rivet head markings indicate
material and strength of the rivet
81. how do you torque hardware when no information is available
use a standard torque table
82. what does grip length correspond to
material thickness
83. how do you keep quenched rivets from hardening
refrigerated lower than 32 degrees F
84. when do you NOT use a self-locking nut
when it is subject to rotation
85. what is the difference between a general purpose an close tolerance bolt?
close tolerance bolts are machined more accurately
86. what is the most common control cable used today
7x19 flexible stainless steel
87. how is work hardening achieved
by cold working metal
88. what are the characteristics of a welding bead in a butt weld?
the weld bead should be three to five times the material thickness in width, have a smooth taper into the base metal, and have one hundred percent penetration
89. what are the undesirable characteristics of a cold weld?
Improper penetration, rough irregular cold laps, and not feathered into the base metal
90. What is the proper penetration of a fillet weld?
25-50%
91. what is used to make outside measurements?
outside micrometers or vernier calipers
92. what tools are used to inspect welds
magnifying glass and a boroscope
93. why must micrometers be calibrated?
if they are dropped, if the frame is spring due to improper use, or general wear
94. why is an alloy steel that heat treats well not good to weld?
it becomes brittle and cracks
95. what is the difference between a thermo plastic and a thermosetting resin
(Plastics) Thermoplastics can soften or melt and harden again. (resin Matrix) Thermosetting resins will char and burn at elevated temperatures.
96. name a purpose for thermoplastics and a thermosetting resin
• thermoplastics - plexiglass
• thermosetting resins - matrix in composites
97. name materials used in composites
• kevlar
• fiberglass
• carbon fiber
98. name one substance used as a matrix
• polyester resin
• epoxy resin
99. what is the advantage of using pre-impregnated materials (prepregs)?
Proper matrixes, fibers evenly coated, correct mix of resin and hardener
100. what should be done if an induction fire occur at engine start?
continue cranking; if that doesn't work, have a fire guard extinguish
101. how does one check for hydraulic lock
pull the propeller through three or four times in the direction of rotation
102. what damage can result from hydraulic lock
bent or broken connecting rods
103. what information must be near oil fillers?
oil type or reference to proper service manual
104. what results in using jet fuel contaminated AVGAS?
Engine damage or failure
105. can avgas be used in a turbine engine?
yes, for a limited operations. continued use could cause a loss in efficiency and damage
106. What could be the result of using a lower grade fuel than needed
overheating and damage due to detonation
107. What are the physical and safety requirements needed for starting a power plant?
Check list, orient aircraft into the wind, check blast area and intake area, secure GPU and post a fire guard
108. What hand prop procedures should be followed
fuel on, switch off, throttle closed, brakes on, contact
109. What types of knots are used to secure aircraft
anti-slip knot, square knot, or bowline
110. what brakes are used when towing
the tow vehicles brakes
111. why should a mechanic know standard light signals
for taxiing aircraft around active runways
112. where is hand signals published
AIM - Airmans Information Manual
113. When fueling aircraft, what precautions should be taken
use correct fuel, ground aircraft and vehicle, protect surfaces
114. when is pre-oiling of an engine needed
new engines, preserved engines
115. What is a hot start
when temperatures exceed limits during starting sequence on a turbine engine
116. Is automotive gas legal for use in an aircraft engine?
yes if there is an STC (supplemental type certificate)
117. what is some water in fuel indicators
hazy fuel, visible slugs of water settled on the bottom of the fuel sample. Chemical additives can detect hidden water
118. What are some ground operation hazaards?
FOD, other aircraft, people or obstacles, fire on startup, noise levels, props and rotor, hydraulic lock, weather vaneing, limited visibility
119. what does 100 in 100 low lead avgas mean
octane rating
120. List three factors of corrosion
Environmental, type metal, dissimilar metals, condition of protective coatings, presence of electrolytes + contaminants
121. Name thre forms of corrosion
surface, dissimilar metal, intergranular, filliform, fretting
122. list the procedures in corrosion prevention maintenance
clean, lubricate, inspect, treat, seal protective covers, clear drain holes
123. name 5 areas pron to corrosion
exhaust trail areas, battery vent openings, bilges, wheel wells, gear, flap recesses, hinges, any area that can trap water
124. what is the proper tool to remove corrosion on aluminum anodized surface
aluminum wool, aluminum brush, non-metallic brush, nylon pads (scotch brite)
125. what are precautions necessary during washing.
avoid protected areas, bearings, hinges, sealed areas, pitot static tubes
126. name light duty cleaning agents
soap and synthetic detergent
127. Name heavy duty cleaning agents
solvents and emulsions
128. what are some general conditions that cause stress corrosion cracks
sustained tensile stress and corrosive environment
129. how may filliform corrosion look
blistered paint with worm or fern like patterns
130. what is preferred for cleaning plastics
soap and water or approved cleaner
131. why should aluminum polish not be used on anodized surfaces
the polish removes the protective oxide coating
132. what is used to clean aircraft tires
soap and water
133. why should you use only recommended cleaner s on fabric or plastics
they cause less deterioration
134. list one cause of filliform corrosion
improper or incomplete wash primer, failure to keep acidic contaminants off surface.
135. why clean before inspection?
Remove residue that could hide potential problems
136. How may fretting be identified
smoky appearance
137. how do we best protect piano hinges
clean and lubricate regularly
138. what is alodine used for
provide oxide coat to protect aluminum surfaces and as a substrate to help paint bond
139. should you use steel wool on aluminum, why or why not
No, causes corrosion
140. what is the square root of a number
when two or more equal numbers when multiplied together will produce the desired number
141. define square root
• when a number multiplied by itself is equal to the desired number
• square root of 4 = 2
142. how can you perform math with large numbers
powers of 10
143. how may 1,000,000 be written
• = 10 to the 6th power
• 10^6
144. what is the formula for area of a rectangle
L x W
145. name the formula for area of a circle
• Pi x Radius squared
• Pi R^2
146. what is pi
the ratio of the circumference of a circle compared to the diameter of the circle
147. Define trapezoid
an object with four sides only two parallel
148. show two ways to express a ratio
• 7/8
• 7:8
149. what is a proportion
statement of equality between two or more ratios
150. change .29 from a decimal to a percent
.29 = 29%
151. what is the rule for dividing fractions
invert divisor and then multiply
152. what are the steps to add or subtract unlike fractions
find the least common denominator and convert the fractions to the same denominator
153. what are the steps to convert a fraction to a decimal
divide numerator by the denominator
154. list steps to convert fraction to a percent
divide numerator by denominator, move decimal, and affix a percentage sign
155. how do you convert a decimal to its nearest fraction?
multiply decimal by desired fractional
156. where is a 100 hour inspection recorded
aircraft maintenance record
157. who make the 100 hour inspection entry
only the person doing the inspection
158. list the minimum logbook entries required after maintenance
• date
• description
• name
• signature
• certificate number
• and kind of certification held
159. where are major alterations recorded
maintenance records and FAA Form 337
160. How long must 100 hour inspection records be retained
until repeated, superseded, or 1 year
161. how long are AD entries retained
life of the aircraft and transferred at sale
162. who may 0 time an engine
manufacturer
163. what FAR contains minumum entry information for a 100 hour inspection entry
FAR Part 43.11
164. how many copies of form 337 must be completed
copy to owner and copy to FAA
165. when is a 3rd copy of form 337 needed
when an additional fuel tank is installed in a passenger or baggage compartment. one stays onboard the aircraft
166. how do you properly enter dispcrepancies found during a 100 hour or annual inspection
make a maintenance log book entry and provide a list of discrepancies to the aircraft owner/operator
167. define time in service TIS.
from takeoff until touchdown
168. what regulation give inspection authorization
FAR Part 65.95
169. what are the penalties for making fraudelent entries in aircraft log books
suspension or revocation of certificates. FAR Pat 43.12
170. Who may return to service a progressive inspection away from a aircraft's maintenance base
mechanic, repair station, manufacturer
171. overhaul vs rebuild
overhaul is tested against current standards. rebuilt must test to new limits using parts to new limits and approved over and under sizes
172. when is total time in service required in a log book entry
inspection entries
173. where could one find the minimum scope and detail of a 100 hour or annual inspection
FAR Part 43 appendix D
174. what rotorcraft parts must be inspected I/A/W maintenance manuals or maintenance instructions
Drive shafts, main rotor gear box, and main rotor center section, tail rotor
175. how can we identify received parts as serviceable
• 1. approval for RTS entry in record for part
• 2. FAA Form 337
176. what is abolute zero
the temperature at which molecular activity stops
177. what is the standard day barometric altimeter setting
29.92 In/hg
178. Define kinetic energy
Energy in motion
179. Wat is a British Thermal Unit BTU
Amount of energy required to raise 1 lb of water 1 degree F
180. name the three methods of heat transfer
• conduction
• convection
• radiation
181. define friction
the opposition to relative movement between two parts
182. list two factors of work
force and distance
183. name the parts of a basic lever
the bar and fulcrum
184. what class of lever is a wheelbarrow
second class
185. what is a 1st class lever
• the fulcrum is located between the applied force and the load
• pair of scissors or seesaw
186. what is a 2nd class lever
• the load is situated between the fulcrum and the force
• wheelbarrow
187. what is a 3rd class lever
• the force is applied between the fulcrum and the load
• tweezers
188. what is the standard day temperature
59 degrees F
189. what factors are considered in determining density altitude
pressure and temperature
190. define relative humidity
the amount of water vapor actually present in the air
191. what is the nature of pressure of confined fluids
the pressure acts equally in all directions
192. what unit is used to describe pressure in a hydraulic system
• PSI
• pounds per square inch
193. what is the basic formula for computing force
• F=PxA
• Force = Pressure x Area
194. Liquids are considered
Incompressible
195. Name three states of matter
• solids
• liquids
• gases
196. what is matter
Anything that has weight and takes up space
197. what is the speed of sound during standard day conditions
750 mph
198. what is affected by thermal expansion
• solids
• liquids
• gases
199. name the four forces of flight
• lift
• thrust
• drag
• weight
200. what do you call the angle between an aircraft's wing and relative wind
Angle of Attack (AOA)
201. what causes an airfoil to stall
separation of the airflow above the surface
202. function of a vortex generator
reduces stall speed and unloads flight control surfaces
203. what is the purpose of flaps
• increase lift
• decrease stall speeds
• create drag
204. what is the difference of air flow in helicopter powered flight and auto-rotation
changes direction of air from above to below to from below to above
205. what does flapping do for helicopters
balances lift across the rotor disk
206. what publication lists engines approved for specific engines on an airframe
(TCDS) Type Certificate Data Sheet
207. when must a manufacturers service bulletin be complied with
when it becomes an airworthiness directive
208. what manual is prepared for service technicians
maintenance service manuals
209. how would you find the categories a plane is approved in
TCDS
210. why are AD's published
correct unsafe conditions
211. what publication corrects unsafe conditions
Airworthiness Directives
212. when must AD's be complied with
as directed in the AD
213. what manual publications notify owners of defects found on their planes
• service bulletins
• service letters
• service instructions
214. what publications determine dimensional stability of an engine part
engine overhaul manual
215. what publication sets limitations and type design
specifications or TCDS
216. what regulation sets requirements for issue of TCDS
Part 21
217. what regulation set the Airworthiness Standards for new transport category airplanes
Part 25
218. what are advisory circulars
non regulation information of interest to the aviation public
219. when is summary of ADs published
Every other year
220. Are AD's issued to mechanics
NO
221. who is responsible to ensure the latest information is used in maintenance
the mechanic completing the task
222. how do you maintain an old aircraft with no manuals
use advisory circular  43.13
223. where can you find the minimum checklist to perform an annual or 100 hour inspection
FAR Part 43 appendix D
224. Where can you find the classification for major repair or alterations
FAR Part 43 appendix A
225. how often are AD's issued
Bi-weekly
226. what FAR part describes mechanics privileges and limitations
FAR Part 65
227. Where can you find your resentsy requirements
FAR Part 65.83
228. where can you find change of address requirements
FAR Part 65.21
229. what type of work can a mechanic complete
FAR Part 65.81
230. what are mechanics privileges concerning props
FAR Part 65.81
231. what are mechanic privileges concerning instruments
FAR Part 65.81
232. what can mechanic approve for Return to Service
FAR Part 43.7
233. what can be used as a guide for classifying work
FAR Part 43 appendix A
234. what are you airframe license privileges
65.85
235. can an airframe rated person work on engines
65.81
236. what are privileges and limitations of an airframe and powerplant rated mechanic regarding major repairs and alterations
FAR Part 65.81, 65.85, and 65.87
237. what is the duration of airframe and powerplant rating
forever, FAR Part 65.15
238. how long are temporary licenses valid
120 days 65.13
239. how long can certifications be held after revocation
1 year 65.11
240. what if your temporary certificate is older than 120 days
120 days 65.13
241. what is a power plant rated mechanics privileges
perform a 100 hour inspection only on the engine 65.87
242. where can you find a pilots privilege to perform maintenance
FAR Part 43.3 and 43.7
243. when can a mechanic perform an annual inspection
when the mechanic obtains an Inspection Authorization. FAR Part 65.95
244. what ratings can be held by a mechanic
airframe and power plant 65.73
 Author: TP3175 ID: 256662 Card Set: O&P General Updated: 2014-01-27 21:01:16 Tags: General Folders: Description: O&P General Show Answers: