O&P General

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O&P General
2014-01-27 16:01:16

O&P General
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  1. Define inductance.
    Induced voltage opposite applied voltage.
  2. What does inductive and capacitance reactance cause?
    Opposition to current flow in AC circuits.
  3. What represents capacitance in AC Circuits?
  4. What is the nature of capacitors?
    They serve as storage devices.
  5. Why should Ni-Cad and lead acid batteries not be stored together?
    They are chemically opposite and can neutralize each other.
  6. Name the basic elements of a circuit.
    The Source, Load, and Conductors.
  7. What is Ohm's Law
  8. Name the elements of Ohm's Law
    • E = Voltage
    • I = Current
    • R = Resistance
  9. What is DC power measured in
  10. Name the three types of DC circuits
    • Series
    • Parallel
    • Series-Parallel (complex)
  11. What happens in a DC circuit if the voltage increases, but the resistance remains the same?
    the current flow will increase
  12. What could be the problem if a NI-Cad fails to deliver?
    a cell imbalance or bad cell
  13. What are the advantages of AC?
    It can be transmitted more readily over long distance and AC can be stepped up or down by transformers.
  14. What are some things a multimeter can be use to check?
    Amps, Volts, Ohms
  15. What is impedance?
    Z - The total opposition to current flow in a circuit.
  16. How many cells are in a 24 volt battery?
    12 cells (2v each)
  17. what is the specific gravity of charged lead acid battery?
    1.275 - 1.300
  18. What are the effects temperature has on the specific gravity of a lead acid battery?
    Anything above or below 80 degree F must be corrected with conversion chart.
  19. Why is no specific gravity check done on Ni-Cad batteries?
    • there is no real change of the specific gravity during charge or discharge of a Ni-cad
    • battery.
  20. Name the information found in the title block of a drawing.
    • Part Number
    • Name of the part
    • scale
    • date
    • firm name
    • draftsmen
    • checker
    • approving person
  21. What line is used to indicate an alternate position.
    • the phantom line
    • one long and two short dashes
  22. What line is used to illustrate hidden views?
    • A hidden line.
    • short dashes with even spaces.
  23. what line is used to illustrate centers of objects?
    • A center line
    • Long and Short dashes
  24. What line is used to size objects?
    • A dimension line.
    • A solid line broken at center point for dimensions.
  25. Drawing changes are indicate how?
    Revisions on columns near title block.
  26. What is tolerance?
    A tolerance is a plus or minus allowance
  27. What is clearance?
    A space between parts
  28. What is BOM
    a "bill of Materials" or listing of materials for the part on the drawing.
  29. Why are symbols used on drawings?
    They serve as a short hand and reduce the complexity of the drawing.
  30. how may a drawing show most detail?
    By drawing a detail view at a larger scale than the principal view.
  31. What is the purpose for one view drawings?
    Shows objects of uniform thickness.
  32. What are schematics used for?
    Troubleshooting purposes
  33. What is an orthographic drawing?
    A drawing showing different views at right angles.
  34. What is the primary purpose for computing weight and balance?
  35. How do you arrive at a moment?
    Multiply the weight times the arm.
  36. What are the results of an excessive forward center of gravity?
    Instability and difficulty flying.
  37. how do you compensate for equipment installed in out of the CG range?
    Install Ballast
  38. What is the datum?
    Station 0 or the point from which all horizontal measurements are taken.
  39. Define tare weight
    any weight added to the scales to stabilize the aircraft, but not part of the aircraft weight.
  40. How is the ARM obtained>
    through specifications or a measurement from the datum to the object
  41. What is necessary when the weight and balance records are missing
    Reweigh the aircraft
  42. How do we treat new equipment added to an aircraft
    compute weight and balance mathematically
  43. what is done with fuel in weight and balance?
    The fuel is drained or topped off and computed in the weight and balance.
  44. how do you get a ( + ) moment aft of datum?
    by adding weight.
  45. how do you get a ( - ) moment in front of the datum?
    by adding weight
  46. What is done with all equipment not permanently installed?
    take out
  47. What is a loading graph
    a way to determine the CG at a glance
  48. What is residual fuel
    Fuel left in the system after draining
  49. Define ballast
    weight added to an aircraft to correct the CG
  50. Name some common leveling methods
    level and leveling means or protractor or a plumb bob
  51. how does a plane's CG range compare to a helicopters CG range?
    A helicopter has a smaller range
  52. Why is aircraft category a factor in weight and balance
    differing categories have different gross weights and CG ranges.
  53. Define MAC
    Mean Aerodynamic Chord
  54. Name two ways to show CG or CG range
    Inches from datum or percentage of mean aerodynamic chord.
  55. name the two types of fluid lines used on aircraft
    metal and flexible lines
  56. how are metal lines sized? what increments are used?
    Metal lines are sized by O.D. in sixteenth inch and wall thickness in thousandths of an inch
  57. what markings are found on flexible hoses?
    size, manufacturing date, pressure range and temperature limits.
  58. identify the features of flare tube fittings
    there is a shoulder between end of threads and flare cone and the fittings are usually blue.
  59. what de-burring caution should be exercised?
    do not reduce wall thickness
  60. name the parts of a standard flareless fitting
    the body, sleeve, and nut
  61. name two kinds of flares
    single and double
  62. what is the advantage of flexible teflon
    high temperature and pressure ranges. compatibility with many chemicals.
  63. how are flexible hoses sized?
    I.D. one sixteenths increments
  64. how do Q.D.'s (quick disconnects) work?
    valve and spring
  65. how do you determine if a line is twisted on install
    ID stripe or lay line running the length of the hose.
  66. how much longer should a flexible line be when fabricating a new line?
    5-8% longer than required to reach the fittings
  67. what happens to an over torqued flareless tube fitting
    the nut drives cutting edge of sleeve too deep into the tubing causing the tube to weaken
  68. what fitting should be used on stainless lines?
  69. how should metal oil, fuel, and hydraulic lines be installed
    clamped and bonded
  70. what is the purpose of a quick disconnect (QD)
    quick, no fluid loss, no air or debris entering system
  71. what is the difference between AN and AC flared fittings?
    Sleeve length, thread pitch, AN has a shoulder between thread and cone, overall length, color
  72. what is the purpose of a sleeve on a flared tube fitting?
    the sleeve draws tubing flare tightly against the male fitting
  73. visual differences between flareless fitting and flared fitting?
    No flare cone and no space between threads and fitting
  74. Effects of over torque on flare fittings
    damages flare causing weak point
  75. what does the magnetic particle process consist of
    magnetizing part, apply ferromagnetic particles, particles will for a pattern on the surface.
  76. What NDT could be used to check for surface cracks in aluminum fittings?
    • Dye Penetrant
    • X-Ray
    • Eddy Current
    • Ultrasonic
    • Visual
  77. what occurs at preparation when penetrant is applied and removed from a part?
    Penetrant enters crack and stays. Developer is applied to make crack visible.
  78. list the steps used for dye penetrant procedure
    • clean
    • apply penetrant
    • remove penetrant
    • dry
    • apply developer
    • inspect for results
  79. how are bolts identified
    code markings on heads
  80. what do rivet head markings indicate
    material and strength of the rivet
  81. how do you torque hardware when no information is available
    use a standard torque table
  82. what does grip length correspond to
    material thickness
  83. how do you keep quenched rivets from hardening
    refrigerated lower than 32 degrees F
  84. when do you NOT use a self-locking nut
    when it is subject to rotation
  85. what is the difference between a general purpose an close tolerance bolt?
    close tolerance bolts are machined more accurately
  86. what is the most common control cable used today
    7x19 flexible stainless steel
  87. how is work hardening achieved
    by cold working metal
  88. what are the characteristics of a welding bead in a butt weld?
    the weld bead should be three to five times the material thickness in width, have a smooth taper into the base metal, and have one hundred percent penetration
  89. what are the undesirable characteristics of a cold weld?
    Improper penetration, rough irregular cold laps, and not feathered into the base metal
  90. What is the proper penetration of a fillet weld?
  91. what is used to make outside measurements?
    outside micrometers or vernier calipers
  92. what tools are used to inspect welds
    magnifying glass and a boroscope
  93. why must micrometers be calibrated?
    if they are dropped, if the frame is spring due to improper use, or general wear
  94. why is an alloy steel that heat treats well not good to weld?
    it becomes brittle and cracks
  95. what is the difference between a thermo plastic and a thermosetting resin
    (Plastics) Thermoplastics can soften or melt and harden again. (resin Matrix) Thermosetting resins will char and burn at elevated temperatures.
  96. name a purpose for thermoplastics and a thermosetting resin
    • thermoplastics - plexiglass
    • thermosetting resins - matrix in composites
  97. name materials used in composites
    • kevlar
    • fiberglass
    • carbon fiber
  98. name one substance used as a matrix
    • polyester resin
    • epoxy resin
  99. what is the advantage of using pre-impregnated materials (prepregs)?
    Proper matrixes, fibers evenly coated, correct mix of resin and hardener
  100. what should be done if an induction fire occur at engine start?
    continue cranking; if that doesn't work, have a fire guard extinguish
  101. how does one check for hydraulic lock
    pull the propeller through three or four times in the direction of rotation
  102. what damage can result from hydraulic lock
    bent or broken connecting rods
  103. what information must be near oil fillers?
    oil type or reference to proper service manual
  104. what results in using jet fuel contaminated AVGAS?
    Engine damage or failure
  105. can avgas be used in a turbine engine?
    yes, for a limited operations. continued use could cause a loss in efficiency and damage
  106. What could be the result of using a lower grade fuel than needed
    overheating and damage due to detonation
  107. What are the physical and safety requirements needed for starting a power plant?
    Check list, orient aircraft into the wind, check blast area and intake area, secure GPU and post a fire guard
  108. What hand prop procedures should be followed
    fuel on, switch off, throttle closed, brakes on, contact
  109. What types of knots are used to secure aircraft
    anti-slip knot, square knot, or bowline
  110. what brakes are used when towing
    the tow vehicles brakes
  111. why should a mechanic know standard light signals
    for taxiing aircraft around active runways
  112. where is hand signals published
    AIM - Airmans Information Manual
  113. When fueling aircraft, what precautions should be taken
    use correct fuel, ground aircraft and vehicle, protect surfaces
  114. when is pre-oiling of an engine needed
    new engines, preserved engines
  115. What is a hot start
    when temperatures exceed limits during starting sequence on a turbine engine
  116. Is automotive gas legal for use in an aircraft engine?
    yes if there is an STC (supplemental type certificate)
  117. what is some water in fuel indicators
    hazy fuel, visible slugs of water settled on the bottom of the fuel sample. Chemical additives can detect hidden water
  118. What are some ground operation hazaards?
    FOD, other aircraft, people or obstacles, fire on startup, noise levels, props and rotor, hydraulic lock, weather vaneing, limited visibility
  119. what does 100 in 100 low lead avgas mean
    octane rating
  120. List three factors of corrosion
    Environmental, type metal, dissimilar metals, condition of protective coatings, presence of electrolytes + contaminants
  121. Name thre forms of corrosion
    surface, dissimilar metal, intergranular, filliform, fretting
  122. list the procedures in corrosion prevention maintenance
    clean, lubricate, inspect, treat, seal protective covers, clear drain holes
  123. name 5 areas pron to corrosion
    exhaust trail areas, battery vent openings, bilges, wheel wells, gear, flap recesses, hinges, any area that can trap water
  124. what is the proper tool to remove corrosion on aluminum anodized surface
    aluminum wool, aluminum brush, non-metallic brush, nylon pads (scotch brite)
  125. what are precautions necessary during washing.
    avoid protected areas, bearings, hinges, sealed areas, pitot static tubes
  126. name light duty cleaning agents
    soap and synthetic detergent
  127. Name heavy duty cleaning agents
    solvents and emulsions
  128. what are some general conditions that cause stress corrosion cracks
    sustained tensile stress and corrosive environment
  129. how may filliform corrosion look
    blistered paint with worm or fern like patterns
  130. what is preferred for cleaning plastics
    soap and water or approved cleaner
  131. why should aluminum polish not be used on anodized surfaces
    the polish removes the protective oxide coating
  132. what is used to clean aircraft tires
    soap and water
  133. why should you use only recommended cleaner s on fabric or plastics
    they cause less deterioration
  134. list one cause of filliform corrosion
    improper or incomplete wash primer, failure to keep acidic contaminants off surface.
  135. why clean before inspection?
    Remove residue that could hide potential problems
  136. How may fretting be identified
    smoky appearance
  137. how do we best protect piano hinges
    clean and lubricate regularly
  138. what is alodine used for
    provide oxide coat to protect aluminum surfaces and as a substrate to help paint bond
  139. should you use steel wool on aluminum, why or why not
    No, causes corrosion
  140. what is the square root of a number
    when two or more equal numbers when multiplied together will produce the desired number
  141. define square root
    • when a number multiplied by itself is equal to the desired number
    • square root of 4 = 2
  142. how can you perform math with large numbers
    powers of 10
  143. how may 1,000,000 be written
    • = 10 to the 6th power
    • 10^6
  144. what is the formula for area of a rectangle
    L x W
  145. name the formula for area of a circle
    • Pi x Radius squared
    • Pi R^2
  146. what is pi
    the ratio of the circumference of a circle compared to the diameter of the circle
  147. Define trapezoid
    an object with four sides only two parallel
  148. show two ways to express a ratio
    • 7/8
    • 7:8
  149. what is a proportion
    statement of equality between two or more ratios
  150. change .29 from a decimal to a percent
    .29 = 29%
  151. what is the rule for dividing fractions
    invert divisor and then multiply
  152. what are the steps to add or subtract unlike fractions
    find the least common denominator and convert the fractions to the same denominator
  153. what are the steps to convert a fraction to a decimal
    divide numerator by the denominator
  154. list steps to convert fraction to a percent
    divide numerator by denominator, move decimal, and affix a percentage sign
  155. how do you convert a decimal to its nearest fraction?
    multiply decimal by desired fractional
  156. where is a 100 hour inspection recorded
    aircraft maintenance record
  157. who make the 100 hour inspection entry
    only the person doing the inspection
  158. list the minimum logbook entries required after maintenance
    • date
    • description
    • name
    • signature
    • certificate number
    • and kind of certification held
  159. where are major alterations recorded
    maintenance records and FAA Form 337
  160. How long must 100 hour inspection records be retained
    until repeated, superseded, or 1 year
  161. how long are AD entries retained
    life of the aircraft and transferred at sale
  162. who may 0 time an engine
  163. what FAR contains minumum entry information for a 100 hour inspection entry
    FAR Part 43.11
  164. how many copies of form 337 must be completed
    copy to owner and copy to FAA
  165. when is a 3rd copy of form 337 needed
    when an additional fuel tank is installed in a passenger or baggage compartment. one stays onboard the aircraft
  166. how do you properly enter dispcrepancies found during a 100 hour or annual inspection
    make a maintenance log book entry and provide a list of discrepancies to the aircraft owner/operator
  167. define time in service TIS.
    from takeoff until touchdown
  168. what regulation give inspection authorization
    FAR Part 65.95
  169. what are the penalties for making fraudelent entries in aircraft log books
    suspension or revocation of certificates. FAR Pat 43.12
  170. Who may return to service a progressive inspection away from a aircraft's maintenance base
    mechanic, repair station, manufacturer
  171. overhaul vs rebuild
    overhaul is tested against current standards. rebuilt must test to new limits using parts to new limits and approved over and under sizes
  172. when is total time in service required in a log book entry
    inspection entries
  173. where could one find the minimum scope and detail of a 100 hour or annual inspection
    FAR Part 43 appendix D
  174. what rotorcraft parts must be inspected I/A/W maintenance manuals or maintenance instructions
    Drive shafts, main rotor gear box, and main rotor center section, tail rotor
  175. how can we identify received parts as serviceable
    • 1. approval for RTS entry in record for part
    • 2. FAA Form 337
  176. what is abolute zero
    the temperature at which molecular activity stops
  177. what is the standard day barometric altimeter setting
    29.92 In/hg
  178. Define kinetic energy
    Energy in motion
  179. Wat is a British Thermal Unit BTU
    Amount of energy required to raise 1 lb of water 1 degree F
  180. name the three methods of heat transfer
    • conduction
    • convection
    • radiation
  181. define friction
    the opposition to relative movement between two parts
  182. list two factors of work
    force and distance
  183. name the parts of a basic lever
    the bar and fulcrum
  184. what class of lever is a wheelbarrow
    second class
  185. what is a 1st class lever
    • the fulcrum is located between the applied force and the load
    • pair of scissors or seesaw
  186. what is a 2nd class lever
    • the load is situated between the fulcrum and the force
    • wheelbarrow
  187. what is a 3rd class lever
    • the force is applied between the fulcrum and the load
    • tweezers
  188. what is the standard day temperature
    59 degrees F
  189. what factors are considered in determining density altitude
    pressure and temperature
  190. define relative humidity
    the amount of water vapor actually present in the air
  191. what is the nature of pressure of confined fluids
    the pressure acts equally in all directions
  192. what unit is used to describe pressure in a hydraulic system
    • PSI
    • pounds per square inch
  193. what is the basic formula for computing force
    • F=PxA
    • Force = Pressure x Area
  194. Liquids are considered
  195. Name three states of matter
    • solids
    • liquids
    • gases
  196. what is matter
    Anything that has weight and takes up space
  197. what is the speed of sound during standard day conditions
    750 mph
  198. what is affected by thermal expansion
    • solids
    • liquids
    • gases
  199. name the four forces of flight
    • lift
    • thrust
    • drag
    • weight
  200. what do you call the angle between an aircraft's wing and relative wind
    Angle of Attack (AOA)
  201. what causes an airfoil to stall
    separation of the airflow above the surface
  202. function of a vortex generator
    reduces stall speed and unloads flight control surfaces
  203. what is the purpose of flaps
    • increase lift
    • decrease stall speeds
    • create drag
  204. what is the difference of air flow in helicopter powered flight and auto-rotation
    changes direction of air from above to below to from below to above
  205. what does flapping do for helicopters
    balances lift across the rotor disk
  206. what publication lists engines approved for specific engines on an airframe
    (TCDS) Type Certificate Data Sheet
  207. when must a manufacturers service bulletin be complied with
    when it becomes an airworthiness directive
  208. what manual is prepared for service technicians
    maintenance service manuals
  209. how would you find the categories a plane is approved in
  210. why are AD's published
    correct unsafe conditions
  211. what publication corrects unsafe conditions
    Airworthiness Directives
  212. when must AD's be complied with
    as directed in the AD
  213. what manual publications notify owners of defects found on their planes
    • service bulletins
    • service letters
    • service instructions
  214. what publications determine dimensional stability of an engine part
    engine overhaul manual
  215. what publication sets limitations and type design
    specifications or TCDS
  216. what regulation sets requirements for issue of TCDS
    Part 21
  217. what regulation set the Airworthiness Standards for new transport category airplanes
    Part 25
  218. what are advisory circulars
    non regulation information of interest to the aviation public
  219. when is summary of ADs published
    Every other year
  220. Are AD's issued to mechanics
  221. who is responsible to ensure the latest information is used in maintenance
    the mechanic completing the task
  222. how do you maintain an old aircraft with no manuals
    use advisory circular  43.13
  223. where can you find the minimum checklist to perform an annual or 100 hour inspection
    FAR Part 43 appendix D
  224. Where can you find the classification for major repair or alterations
    FAR Part 43 appendix A
  225. how often are AD's issued
  226. what FAR part describes mechanics privileges and limitations
    FAR Part 65
  227. Where can you find your resentsy requirements
    FAR Part 65.83
  228. where can you find change of address requirements
    FAR Part 65.21
  229. what type of work can a mechanic complete
    FAR Part 65.81
  230. what are mechanics privileges concerning props
    FAR Part 65.81
  231. what are mechanic privileges concerning instruments
    FAR Part 65.81
  232. what can mechanic approve for Return to Service
    FAR Part 43.7
  233. what can be used as a guide for classifying work
    FAR Part 43 appendix A
  234. what are you airframe license privileges
  235. can an airframe rated person work on engines
  236. what are privileges and limitations of an airframe and powerplant rated mechanic regarding major repairs and alterations
    FAR Part 65.81, 65.85, and 65.87
  237. what is the duration of airframe and powerplant rating
    forever, FAR Part 65.15
  238. how long are temporary licenses valid
    120 days 65.13
  239. how long can certifications be held after revocation
    1 year 65.11
  240. what if your temporary certificate is older than 120 days
    120 days 65.13
  241. what is a power plant rated mechanics privileges
    perform a 100 hour inspection only on the engine 65.87
  242. where can you find a pilots privilege to perform maintenance
    FAR Part 43.3 and 43.7
  243. when can a mechanic perform an annual inspection
    when the mechanic obtains an Inspection Authorization. FAR Part 65.95
  244. what ratings can be held by a mechanic
    airframe and power plant 65.73