The time it takes for paired chromosomes to split and move to opposite poles of the cell along the microtubule spindle.
Contain complex carbohydrates like cellulose, pectin, and lignin that provide structural rigidity to each cell.
Membrane-bound, fluid-filled organelle that provides structure within the plant cell and store both water and nutrients.
When chloroplasts are found in parenchyma cells, the cells are called chlorenchyma.
Cellular organelles where photosynthesis occurs, unique to plant cells
These cells have unevenly thickened cell walls and are living
Last stage of cell division, each new cell forms an enveloping plasma membrane, cell plate begins to develop b/w the two membranes where new cell-wall material begins to be manufactured.
Fluid matrix in the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria and ribosomes circulate within the cytoplasm.
Indicated by movement of chloroplasts within the cell.
Product of cell division, two identical daughter cells formed from a single parent cell.
Equal concentration of of chemicals or solute concentration within a space or across a membrane
Type of Sclerenchyma cell, a long narrow cell
Only phase that's not a part of mitosis, nucleus appears as a dark mass and the nucleolus may be visible. DNA replication occurs here but is not visible.
Fats, what the cell membrane is mostly composed of.
In a sclerenchyma cell (which is dead), the lumen is the cavity where the cytoplasm once was.
Occurs when all chromosomes become aligned along the middle axis of the nucleus, ~halfway along the spindle.
The line-up of chromosomes that occurs in metaphase, a way to organize all chromosomes to ensure each new cell will have a copy of each chromosome.
In prophase, microtubules form a spindle spanning the interior of the cell with two anchor points at opposite poles of the cell.
The spindle formed along the interior of the cell in prophase
Process by which cells undergo division to produce two identical daughter cells from a single parent cell.
These cells are thin-walled and are living at maturity
The cell that undergoes division (mitosis) to produce two identical daughter cells
Also called plasmalemma, right inside the cell wall, cell-wall materials are formed and added by the membrane.
Pores in the cell walls between two cells where water and materials are exchanged across plasma membranes of the adjacent cells.
Chromosomes thicken and become visible, nucleolus disappears. Microtubules form a spindle.
Type of sclerenchyma cell, are various shapes
Cells are dead at maturity, have thick cell walls, can be composed of two different types: a) fibers b) sclereids
Occurs when all chromosomes have arrived at the two poles and new membranes have formed around the daughter nuclei. Spindle disappears and various organelles are replicated and sorted to each side of the cell.
Non-living area between adjacent cells, filled with Ca2+ and Mg2+ pectates which cements adjacent cells together. Makes plants rigid.
Continuum of living material, minerals and metabolites can be transported throughout the plant without leaving the cytoplasm.
Non-living parts of plant tissue. Ex middle lamella and dead xylem vessels.
Made of three major componants: Lipids (40%) Proteins (40%) and Carbohydrates (20%)
Arranged in bilayer, polar portions face out and non-polar portions face in (unit membrane). Lipid mixture contains phospholipids, glycolipids, sterols.
Most common membrane lipid. Contains a charged, polar head and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Can be saturated or unsaturated (kinked).
Has sugar as a polar group, hydroxyl head for polar part. Non-polar conjugated rings as non-polar part.
Most are enzymes that have important roles in transport of metabolites across the membrane. Some proteins extend through membrane from one side to the other, some confined to outside or inside membrane.
Linked to proteins and lipids. Helps position protein so it's linked to the polar part of the membrane, can help form 3D structure.
Liquid Crystalline State
Proteins can move in the phospholipid matrix and the whole membrane is very fluid.
Solid Gel Phase
Occurs @4°C (in tomatoes anyways), gelling brings most membrane activities to a standstill and increases permeability of the membrane.
Provides structure/support, protects contents of plant.
Main structural component of cell walls
Glue-like substance, holds cellulose fibrils together (cell wall)
Organic material that gives stiffness to fruit jellies
Proteins that have sugars associated with their molecules
Bound by two membranes (nuclear envelope), contains nucleoplasm (granular-appearing fluids)
Composed primarily of RNA and associated proteins.
Facilitates cellular communication and channeling of materials
- can have ribosomes on surface (rough ER) or no ribosomes (smooth ER)
- synthesizes a diverse array of lipids
Composed of 2 subunits made of RNA and proteins. Initiate protein synthesis in association with special RNA molecules.
Stacks of flattened discs/vesicles, "Golgi apparatus", involved in the modification of carbohydrates attached to proteins that are synthesized and packaged in the ER.
Several kinds in most plants, chloroplasts the most conspicuous
Stacked in chloroplasts, each granum contains 2-100 thylakoids
Contain chlorophyll and other pigments. Inside, first steps of photosynthesis take place.
Liquid phase of the chloroplast, contains enzymes involved in photosynthesis.
Energy released from them as they undergo cellular respiration on organic molecules, this energy keeps individual cells and whole plant functioning.
Small, spherical organelles: contain specialized enzymes bounded by a single membrane.
(microbody) contain enzymes needed by some plants to survive during hot conditions -> photorespiration
(microbody) contain enzymes that aid in the conversion of fats to carbohydrates
Take up 90% or more of cell, bounded by vacuolar membranes, help maintain cell pressure or pH, storage for cell metabolites and waste products.
- contain "digestion" enzymes incl. proteases, nucleases, glycosidases, lipases. These break down and recycle cellular components.
Intricate network made mainly of microtubules and microfilaments.
Why are enzymes adversely affected by the phase change?
Tertiary protein structure altered by the phase change; active sites become buried/altered so they can no longer bind substrate.
Temperature at which the phase transition occurs (from liquid crystalline to solid gel phase)
Are cell-wall degrading enzymes, used to destroy pathogenic fungi and bacteria
Use of latexes in plants?
Are wound-clogging emulsions of hydrophobic polymers, possess insecticidal and fungicidal properties, also antiherbivory agents.
Pigment found in vacuoles of many plant cells (like flowers and fruit).
Precursor of all other plastids
Unpigmented plastids, contain starch granuoles. Common in storage organs like potato tubers
Colourless plastids involved in synthesis of monoterpenes
Volatile compounds in essential oils, found in secretory glands assoc. with leaf and stem trichores, also found in citrus plants
synthesis + accumulate corotenoid and xanthophyll pigments making them warm colours. Found in ripe tomatoes, carrots, red peppers
plastids where development from proplastids to chloroplasts has been arrested by absence of light. Contain no chlorophyll but have colourless chlorophyll precursor (protochlorophyllide). Light triggers development of etioplasts into chloroplasts.
PSI and PSII
Photosystem I: ATP synthesis, in the unstacked stroma
Photosystem II: Occurs first, takes place in the stacked grana thylakoid membrane
Capture of light energy and its conversion to chemical energy (ATP and NADPH)
Enzymatic fixation of CO2 into carbohydrate, utilizing the ATP and NADPH from the light rxns
Shoots: Apical or Terminal Bud
Leaves originate from the apical/terminal bud of the stem.
Tissue that contains actively dividing cells
The locations where leaves are attached
Shoots: Auxillary Bud
Branch stems arise from auxillary buds, located at the nodes along main stem in the axils of leaves
Point where the leaf joins the stem, in dicots there is an auxillary bud in each axil
Area between the nodes
Shoots: Floral Buds
Many form from either the auxillary or apical meristems.
Meristems: Apical Meristem
Found in root tips and stem tips. Generates stem tissue and initiates formation of new leaves.
What are the 3 primary/transitional meristems?
Protoderm, ground meristem, procambium
Forms the epidermis/outer protective layer covering of a growing root or shoot.
Meristems: Ground Meristem
Forms the cortex/main bulk of plant. Consists of parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells.
Produces the vascular tissue that consists of xylem and phloem.
Plant hormone that inhibits growth of auxillary buds
Plant hormone that promotes growth of auxillary buds. Builds up in axial buds when it's going to grow out.
Meristems: Lateral Meristems
Produce secondary growth, increases diameter of stems and roots of woody plants
Meristems: Intercalary Meristems
Occur between mature tissues, facilitates longitudinal growth of plant organ independant of the activity of the apical meristem. Consists of both new and mature cells. Occurs in grasses and related plants
Flowering plants. Seeds enclosed in an ovary.
No secondary growth in roots and shoots, one cotyledon.
Can have secondary growth in roots and shoots. Two cotyledons.
"naked" seeds (not enclosed in an ovary). Can have secondary growth in roots and shoots.
Functions of Roots
- anchor plants in soil
- absorb water and mineral nutrients from soil
- conduct water and minerals to and from the shoots
- provide area for storage
Roots: Root Cap
protective layer of cells produced from the root tip to prevent damage to the apical meristem as roots push through soil. Also area where gravity is perceived by plant
Roots: Region of cell division
Located behind the root cap, includes apical meristem and area right above it, meristematic region where cells divide every 12-36 hrs
Roots: Cell elongation
Located above the area of cell division. Region where cells elongate, causing root to lengthen
Roots: Cell maturation
Located above the region of cell elongation, where primary tissues mature into secondary tissues. Where root hairs are formed (extension of the epidermal cell, increases root surface area)
Outer absorbing layer of root, consisting of single layer of cells, covers entire root except for root cap. Can have root hairs.
Large thin-walled parenchyma cells found to the inside of the epidermis. Loosely packed to allow for water and minerals to move through without entering the cells. Functions in food storage.
Outermost layer of the cortex (sometimes formed), specialized protective layer. Hypodermal cells lined with subarin, which slows water and nutrient loss from the root.
Apoplastic (movement of water)
Movement through cell walls and intercellular spaces, resistance to flow 50% less than symplastic
Symplastic (movement of water)
Movement through living cells, secondary route for water movement due to greater resistance to water flow.
Innermost layer of cortex. Single layer of cells that form a boundary b/w the cortex and the vascular cylinder.
Xylem and phloem
One or more layers of cells that surround the vascular tissues. The location from which lateral or branch roots arise. Generates vascular cambium in plants undergoing secondary growth.
Ground tissue located in the center of the root
A waxy layer present on the epidermal cells of a stem. Not on roots.
A transport tissue that conducts water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. Xylem is non-living. Primary xylem consists of fibres and parenchyma cells.
Type of conducting cell in xylem. Are elongated with a tapered end.
Type of conducting cell in xylem. Larger than tracheids, lack end walls, form a continuous pipeline for transport.
in vascular elements, in secondary cell wall regions where no secondary cell wall was deposited. Has openings in it that water can freely move through.
Transport tissue that conducts organic nutrients, usually from leaves to roots. Living at maturity.
What phloem is made up of, have associated companion cells. The ends of these cells form a plate with holes to resemble a sieve.
Smaller + closely connected to the sieve-tube-cells, nucleus of companion cells controls and maintains both cells
Above ground stem modification. Horizontal stem that grows above ground. New plants produced where nodes touch the ground ex. strawberry
Above ground stem modification. Branch that is capable of clinging or coiling around structures to provide additional support ex. grapes
Below ground stem modification. Horizontal stem below ground. Roots and shoots develop from the nodes. Store food for shoot growth following periods of stress.
Below ground stem modification. Compressed stem surrounded by fleshy leaf-like structures (scales) -> enclose shoot or flower buds. Outer scales protect, inner scales store food resources.
Growth in height (apical meristem)
Horizontal growth (girth)
Originates from parenchyma cells in cortex, regained meristematic activity
1 of 2 regions of mesophyll tissue in a dicot leaf. Upper region of elongated cells vertically arranged in 1-2 compact layers, contains more than 80% of the chloroplasts
1 of 2 regions of mesophyll tissue in a dicot leaf. Lower region of irregular shaped cells loosely arranged. Contains fewer chloroplasts.
Abundant in spongy mesophyll layer as results of irregular shaped loosely packed arrangement of cells. Large # of air spaces in leaf increase surface area available for gas exchange.
Less efficient in fixing carbon (making sugar). Lose 600g water for same amount of grams CO2 fixed as a C4 plant. Only use RuBP to fix CO2
Twice as efficient in fixing carbon (making sugar) as a C3 plant. Only use 300g water by evaporation for every gram CO2 fixed by photosynthesis. First use PEP carboxylase then use RuBP carboxylase in bundle sheath cells
Crassulacean acid metabolism
Mustard Family (largest array of veggies produced from this family)
Which tissues in an angiosperm develop into the seed coat?
The inner and outer integuments
Happens in male gametes
Happens in female gametes
Unbranched, flowers attached directly to central axis (no pedicels)
Unbranched, flowers attached by pedicels to the central axis
Flowers attached by pedicels which arise from common point, simple or compound
Unbranched, pedicels of unequal length alternately attached along central axis, forms a flat-topped cluster
Peduncle with flowers attached directly to a broad receptacle
Regions where floral parts are attached
Outermost whorl of floral parts, protect inner part of flower (collectively: calyx)
Collective term for petals
No petals ex. wheat
Petals partially or completely fused ex. petunia
Petals are seperate ex. marshmallow
All floral parts of similar shape and size (mirror image on all axis's)
Not all floral parts same shape and size (on some axis, not mirror image)
Pollen-bearing structure, incl. anther and filament, collectively called the androecium (male house)
Incl. ovary, stigma, style.
Chambers in the ovary that contain the ovules, collectively called the gynoecium (female house)
Contain all floral components incl. sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
Will be missing one or more floral components
Have male (stamen) and female (pistil) reproductive structures
Have only female (pistillate flowers) or male (staminate flowers) reproductive structures