Fundamental Skills - Acid/Base

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nursedaisy98
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256715
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Fundamental Skills - Acid/Base
Updated:
2014-04-20 10:26:40
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NCLEX RN
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Fundamental Skills
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Acid/Base
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  1. The nurse reviews the arterial blood gas results of a client and notes the following: pH 7.45, Pco2 of 30 mm Hg, and HCO3- of 20 mEq/L. The nurse analyzes these results as indicating which condition?
    1. Metabolic acidosis, compensated
    2. Respiratory alkalosis, compensated
    3. Metabolic alkalosis, uncompensated
    4. Respiratory acidosis, uncompensated
    2. Respiratory alkalosis, compensated
  2. The nurse is caring for a client with a nasogastric tube that is attached to low suction. The nurse monitors the client, knowing that the client is at risk for which acid-base disorder?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
  3. A client with a 3-day history of nausea and vomiting presents to the emergency department. The client is hypoventilating and has a respiratory rate of 10 breaths/minute. The electrocardiogram (ECG) monitor displays tachycardia, with a heart rate of 120 beats/minute. Arterial blood gases are drawn and the nurse reviews the results, expecting to note which finding?
    1. A decreased pH and an increased CO2
    2. An increased pH and a decreased CO2
    3. A decreased pH and a decreased HCO3-
    4. An increased pH with an increased HCO3-
    4. An increased pH with an increased HCO3-
  4. The nurse caring for a client with an ileostomy understands that the client is most at risk for developing which acid-base disorder?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    1. Metabolic acidosis
  5. The nurse is caring for a client with diabetic ketoacidosis and documents that the client is experiencing Kussmaul's respirations. On the basis of this documentation, which pattern did the nurse observe?
    1. Respirations that cease for several seconds
    2. Respirations that are regular but abnormally slow
    3. Respirations that are labored and increased in depth and rate
    4. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate
    4. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate
  6. A client who is found unresponsive has arterial blood gases drawn and the results indicate the following: pH is 7.12, Pco2 is 90 mm Hg, and HCO3- is 22 mEq/L. The nurse interprets the results as indicating which condition?
    1. Metabolic acidosis with compensation
    2. Respiratory acidosis with compensation
    3. Metabolic acidosis without compensation
    4. Respiratory acidosis without compensation
    4. Respiratory acidosis without compensation
  7. The nurse notes that a client's arterial blood gas results reveal a pH of 7.50 and a Pco2 of 30 mm Hg. The nurse monitors the client for which clinical manifestations associated with these arterial blood gas results? Select all that apply.
    1. Nausea
    2. Confusion
    3. Bradypnea
    4. Tachycardia
    5. Hyperkalemia
    6. Lightheadedness
    • 1. Nausea
    • 2. Confusion
    • 4. Tachycardia
    • 6. Lightheadedness
  8. The nurse reviews the blood gas results of a client with atelectasis. The nurse analyzes the results and determines that the client is experiencing respiratory acidosis. Which result validates the nurse's findings?
    1. pH 7.25, Pco2 50 mm Hg
    2. pH 7.35, Pco2 40 mm Hg
    3. pH 7.50, Pco2 52 mm Hg
    4. pH 7.52, Pco2 28 mm Hg
    1. pH 7.25, Pco2 50 mm Hg
  9. The nurse is caring for a client who is on a mechanical ventilator. Blood gas results indicate a pH of 7.50 and a Pco2 of 30 mm Hg. The nurse has determined that the client is experiencing respiratory alkalosis. Which laboratory value would most likely be noted in this condition?
    1. Sodium level of 145 mEq/L
    2. Potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L
    3. Magnesium level of 2.0 mg/dL
    4. Phosphorus level of 4.0 mg/dL
    2. Potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L
  10. The nurse plans care for a client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), understanding that the client is most likely to experience what type of acid-base imbalance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
  11. The nurse reviews the arterial blood gas results of an assigned client and notes that the laboratory report indicates a pH of 7.30, Pco2 of 58 mm Hg, Po2 of 80 mm Hg, and Hco3- of 27 mEq/L. The nurse interprets that the client has which acid-base disturbance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
  12. A client with a history of lung disease is at risk for developing respiratory acidosis. The nurse should assess the client for which signs and symptoms characteristic of this disorder?
    1. Bradycardia and hyperactivity
    2. Decreased respiratory rate and depth
    3. Headache, restlessness, and confusion
    4. Bradypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias
    3. Headache, restlessness, and confusion
  13. The nurse is reviewing the arterial blood gas analysis results for a client in the respiratory care unit and notes a pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 38 mm Hg, PaO2 of 86 mm Hg, and HCO3- of 23 mEq/L. The nurse interprets that these values indicate which result?
    1. Normal results
    2. Metabolic acidosis
    3. Metabolic alkalosis
    4. Respiratory acidosis
    1. Normal results
  14. A client has had an arterial blood gas sample drawn from the radial artery, and the nurse is asked to hold pressure on the site. The nurse should apply pressure for at least how many minute(s)?
    1. 1 minute
    2. 2 minutes
    3. 5 minutes
    4. 10 minutes
    3. 5 minutes
  15. The nurse is reviewing the arterial blood gas (ABG) values of a client and notes that the pH is 7.31, Pco2 is 50 mm Hg, and the bicarbonate (HCO3-) level is 27 mEq/L. The nurse concludes that which acid-base disturbance is present in this client?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
  16. In a client seen in the health care clinic, arterial blood gas analysis gives the following results: pH 7.48, Pco2 32 mm Hg, Po2 94 mm Hg, HCO3- level 24 mEq/L. The nurse interprets that the client has which acid-base disturbance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
  17. A client has a prescription for arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis on radial artery specimens. The nurse ensures that which intervention has been performed or tested before the ABG specimens are drawn?
    1. Allen's test
    2. Goodell's sign
    3. Babinski reflex
    4. Brudzinski's sign
    1. Allen's test
  18. An anxious preoperative client is at risk for developing respiratory alkalosis. The nurse should assess the client for which signs and symptoms characteristic of this disorder?
    1. Headache and tachypnea
    2. Hyperactivity and dyspnea
    3. Muscle twitches and cyanosis
    4. Lightheadedness and paresthesias
    4. Lightheadedness and paresthesias
  19. The nurse is performing a change-of-shift assessment on a client. The client had an arterial blood gas specimen drawn during an admission work-up on the previous day and has a hematoma at the puncture site. What is the priority nursing intervention?
    1. Perform the Allen's test.
    2. Apply a warm compress.
    3. Administer the antidote for heparin.
    4. Notify the hospital laboratory supervisor.
    2. Apply a warm compress.
  20. A client has a prescription for a set of arterial blood gas (ABGs) samples to be drawn on room air. The client currently is receiving oxygen by nasal cannula at a delivery rate of 3 L/min. After reading the prescription, the nurse should take which action?
    1. Remove the nasal cannula for 15 minutes; then have the ABG samples drawn.
    2. Change the nasal cannula to a shovel face mask; then have the ABG samples drawn.
    3. Leave the nasal cannula in place for 15 minutes; then have the ABG samples drawn.
    4. Change the nasal cannula to a Venturi face mask; then have the ABG samples drawn.
    1. Remove the nasal cannula for 15 minutes; then have the ABG samples drawn.
  21. A client experiencing metabolic acidosis is to be admitted to the nursing unit. The nurse develops a plan of care to support the client physiologically until the tubular cells secrete a sufficient amount of which substance?
    1. Phosphates
    2. Hydrogen ions
    3. Ammonium ions
    4. Carbon dioxide molecules
    2. Hydrogen ions
  22. A client suffering from prolonged vomiting has developed metabolic alkalosis. The nurse plans care, knowing that this imbalance will be corrected primarily when the kidneys do which function?
    1. Secrete sufficient water.
    2. Retain sufficient chloride.
    3. Secrete sufficient potassium.
    4. Retain sufficient hydrogen ions.
    4. Retain sufficient hydrogen ions.
  23. A nurse is caring for a client who is retaining carbon dioxide (CO2) as a result of an obstructive respiratory disease. The nurse understands that as the client's CO2 level rises, what will occur with the blood pH?
    1. Fall
    2. Rise
    3. Double
    4. Remain unchanged
    1. Fall
  24. The nurse is planning to obtain blood for arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis from a client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The nurse should plan time for which activity after the arterial blood specimen is drawn?
    1. Holding a warm compress over the puncture site for 5 minutes
    2. Encouraging the client to open and close the hand rapidly for 2 minutes
    3. Applying pressure to the puncture site by applying a 2 × 2 gauze for 5 minutes
    4. Having the client keep the radial pulse puncture site in a dependent position for 5 minutes
    3. Applying pressure to the puncture site by applying a 2 × 2 gauze for 5 minutes
  25. A client with diabetes mellitus has a blood glucose level of 644 mg/dL. The nurse should develop a plan of care because the client is at risk for the development of which type of acid-base imbalance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    1. Metabolic acidosis
  26. A client is diagnosed with respiratory alkalosis induced by gram-negative sepsis. The nurse should plan to carry out which prescribed measure as the most effective means to treat the problem?
    1. Administer prescribed antibiotics.
    2. Have the client breathe into a paper bag.
    3. Administer antipyretics as needed (on PRN basis).
    4. Request a prescription for a partial rebreather oxygen mask.
    1. Administer prescribed antibiotics.
  27. The nurse is caring for a client with chronic kidney disease. Arterial blood gas (ABG) results indicate a pH of 7.30, a Pco2 of 32 mm Hg, and a bicarbonate concentration of 20 mEq/L. Which laboratory value should the nurse expect to note?
    1. Sodium level of 145 mEq/L
    2. Potassium level of 5.2 mEq/L
    3. Phosphorus level of 4.0 mg/dL
    4. Magnesium level of 2.0 mg/dL
    2. Potassium level of 5.2 mEq/L
  28. The client tells the nurse that he ingests large amounts of oral antacids on a daily basis. The nurse plans care knowing that the excessive use of oral antacids containing bicarbonate can result in which acid-base disturbance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
  29. The nurse reviews the arterial blood gas (ABG) results of an assigned client and notes that the laboratory report indicates a pH of 7.30, a Pco2 of 58 mm Hg, a Po2 of 80 mm Hg, and an Hco3- of 27 mEq/L. The nurse should interpret this to mean that the client has which acid-base disturbance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
  30. The client with a history of lung disease is at risk for developing respiratory acidosis. The nurse assesses this client for which signs/symptoms that are characteristic of this disorder?
    1. Bradycardia and hyperactivity
    2. Decreased respiratory rate and depth
    3. Headache, restlessness, and confusion
    4. Bradypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias
    3. Headache, restlessness, and confusion
  31. A nurse reviews the arterial blood gas results of a client with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The pH is 7.34 and the Pco2 is 50 mm Hg. Which acid-base imbalance should the nurse interpret that this client is experiencing?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
  32. A client is admitted to the hospital 24 hours following an aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) overdose. The nurse assesses this client for which signs/symptoms, indicating the acid-base disturbance that could occur in the client?
    1. Bradypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias
    2. Bradycardia, listlessness, and hyperactivity
    3. Headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
    4. Restlessness, confusion, and a positive Trousseau's sign
    3. Headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  33. A nurse reviews a client's arterial blood gas values and notes a pH of 7.50, a Pco2 of 30 mm Hg, and an HCO3- of 25 mEq/L. The nurse should interpret these values as an indication of which condition?
    1. Metabolic acidosis, uncompensated
    2. Respiratory acidosis, uncompensated
    3. Respiratory alkalosis, uncompensated
    4. Metabolic acidosis, partially compensated
    3. Respiratory alkalosis, uncompensated
  34. The nurse is preparing to obtain an arterial blood gas specimen from a client and plans to perform the Allen's test on the client. The nurse would perform the steps in which order to conduct an Allen's test? Arrange the actions in the order that they should be performed. All options must be used.
    1. Apply pressure over the ulnar and radial arteries.
    2. Release pressure from the ulnar artery.
    3. Explain the procedure to the client.
    4. Document the findings.
    5.Ask the client to open and close the hand repeatedly.
    6. Assess the color of the extremity distal to the pressure point.
    • 3. Explain the procedure to the client.
    • 1. Apply pressure over the ulnar and radial arteries.
    • 5. Ask the client to open and close the hand repeatedly.
    • 2. Release pressure from the ulnar artery.
    • 6. Assess the color of the extremity distal to the pressure point.
    • 4. Document the findings.
  35. A client is scheduled for blood to be drawn from the radial artery for an arterial blood gas determination. Before the blood is drawn, an Allen's test is performed to determine the adequacy of which?
    1. Ulnar circulation
    2. Carotid circulation
    3. Femoral circulation
    4. Popliteal circulation
    1. Ulnar circulation
  36. The nurse is caring for a client with diabetic ketoacidosis and documents that the client is experiencing Kussmaul's respirations. Based on this documentation, which did the nurse observe?
    1. Respirations that cease for several seconds
    2. Respirations that are regular but abnormally slow
    3. Respirations that are labored and increased in depth and rate
    4. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate
    4. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate
  37. The nurse reviews a client's arterial blood gas results and notes that the pH is 7.30, the Pco2 is 52 mm Hg, and the HCO3- is 22 mEq/L. The nurse interprets these results as indicating which condition?
    1. Metabolic acidosis, compensated
    2. Respiratory alkalosis, compensated
    3. Metabolic alkalosis, uncompensated
    4. Respiratory acidosis, uncompensated
    4. Respiratory acidosis, uncompensated
  38. A client with diabetes mellitus has a blood glucose level on admission of 596 mg/dL. The nurse should anticipate that this client could be experiencing which type of acid-base imbalance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    1. Metabolic acidosis
  39. A nurse is admitting a client with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome to the hospital. The nurse knows that if the disease is severe enough, the client will be at risk for which acid-base imbalance?
    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
  40. A client is determined to be in respiratory alkalosis by blood gas analysis. Which electrolyte disorder should the nurse monitor for that could accompany the acid-base balance?
    1. Hypokalemia
    2. Hypercalcemia
    3. Hypochloremia
    4. Hypernatremia
    1. Hypokalemia
  41. A client with a chronic airflow limitation (CAL) is experiencing respiratory acidosis as a complication. A nurse who is trying to enhance the client's respiratory status should avoid which action?
    1. Keeping the head of the bed elevated
    2. Monitoring the flow rate of supplemental oxygen
    3. Assisting the client to turn, cough, and breathe deeply
    4. Encouraging the client to breathe slowly and shallowly
    4. Encouraging the client to breathe slowly and shallowly
  42. An anxious client is experiencing respiratory alkalosis from hyperventilation caused by anxiety. The nurse should take which action to help the client experiencing this acid-base disorder?
    1. Put the client in a supine position.
    2. Provide emotional support and reassurance.
    3. Withhold all sedative or antianxiety medications.
    4. Tell the client to breathe very deeply but more slowly.
    2. Provide emotional support and reassurance.
  43. A client is being treated for metabolic acidosis with medication therapy and other measures. The nurse should plan to monitor the results of which electrolyte, which could dramatically decline with effective treatment of the acidosis?
    1. Sodium
    2. Potassium
    3. Magnesium
    4. Phosphorus
    2. Potassium
  44. A nurse is caring for a client who is experiencing metabolic alkalosis. The nurse plans to protect the client's safety knowing the risks of this imbalance, by carefully implementing which prescribed precaution?
    1. Contact isolation
    2. Seizure precautions
    3. Bleeding precautions
    4. Neutropenic precautions
    2. Seizure precautions
  45. A nurse is caring for a client who overdosed on acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) 24 hours ago. The nurse should expect to note which findings associated with an anticipated acid-base disturbance?
    1. Disorientation and dyspnea
    2. Drowsiness, headache, and tachypnea
    3. Tachypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias
    4. Decreased respiratory rate and depth, cardiac irregularities
    2. Drowsiness, headache, and tachypnea
  46. A client has been diagnosed with metabolic alkalosis as a result of excessive antacid use. The nurse should monitor this client, expecting to note which signs/symptoms?
    1. Disorientation and dyspnea
    2. Decreased respiratory rate and depth
    3. Drowsiness, headache, and tachypnea
    4. Tachypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias
    2. Decreased respiratory rate and depth
  47. A nurse is providing care to a client with the following arterial blood gas (ABG) results: pH 7.50; Pao2 90 mm Hg; Paco2 40 mm Hg; and bicarbonate 35 mEq/L. When the nurse notifies the health care provider (HCP) about these levels, the nurse should anticipate receiving which prescription for this client from the HCP?
    1. Obtain a serum alcohol level.
    2. Obtain a serum salicylate level.
    3. Discontinue nasogastric suctioning.
    4. Discontinue the client's Fentanyl patch.
    3. Discontinue nasogastric suctioning.

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