M/B Unit 2

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  1. Amenorrhea
    Absence of menstruation. Primary amenorrhea is a delay of the first menstruation. Secondary amenorrhea is cessation of menstruation after its initiation.
  2. Embryo
    Developing baby from the beginning of the 3rd week through the 8th week after conception.
  3. Ballottement
    Rebound of fetus when the cervix is tapped during vaginal examination
  4. Zygote
    Cell formed by union of an ovum and sperm.
  5. Amniocentesis
    Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid that contains fetal cells and biochemical substances for laboratory examination
  6. Umbilical Cord
    Tube connecting fetus to placenta; the flexible, spirally twisted tube that connects the abdomen of the fetus to the mother's placenta in the womb, and through which nutrients are delivered. 2 arteries, 1 vein
  7. Cultural Relativism
    judging cultures on their own terms; the principle that people should not judge the behavior of others using the standards of their own culture, and that each culture must be analyzed on its own terms
  8. Placenta
    Fetal structure that provides nourishment to and removes wastes from the developing baby and secretes hormones necessary for the pregnancy to continue.
  9. Fetal Age
    The age of an embryo counting from the time of fertilization. Fetal age is counted not from the date of LMP, but from the date of conception
  10. Anencephaly
    a serious birth defect in which baby is born without parts of the brain and skull. It is a type of Neural Tube Defect (NTD)
  11. Gestational Age
    is the time measured from the first day of the LMP to the current date.
  12. Gravida
    the number of the pregnancy that the woman is in (Gravida simply means the number of times the woman has been pregnant; twins count only once)
  13. Parity (Para)
    number of pregnancies that have progressed to 20 or more weeks at delivery, whether the fetus was born alive or stillborn; refers to the number of pregnancies, not the number of fetuses
  14. Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI)
    a measurement and scale of the amount of amniotic fluid present in the womb while the woman is pregnant. Typically, the AFI calculation is determined as part of routine ultrasound exams, somewhere around the 20th week or later
  15. Gravida Term Preterm Abortion Living (GTPAL)
    • Gravida- # of times you have been pregnant
    • Term- # of births born at full term
    • Preterm-# of births before 37 weeks
    • Abortion- # of elective or spontaneous abortions (before 20 weeks)
    • Living- # of living children
  16. Quickening
    first movements of the fetus felt by the mother
  17. Lightening
    descent of the fetus towards the pelvic inlet before labor
  18. Multigravida
    A woman who has been pregnant more than once
  19. Multipara
    A woman who has delivered 2 or more pregnancies at 20 weeks or more of gestation
  20. Hyperglycemia
    elevated fasting blood glucose level above 130 during gestation
  21. Glucosuria
    presence of glucose in the urine; it is common during pregnancy due to the increase blood volume effects on the kidneys or in those with diabetes
  22. Nullipara
    A woman who has never completed a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks of gestation
  23. Nulligravida
    A woman who has never been pregnant
  24. Primigravida
    A woman who is pregnant for the first time
  25. Primipara
    A woman who delivered one pregnancy of at least 20 weeks
  26. Parturient
    Giving birth or pertaining to birth; delivery of the fetus
  27. Puerpural Infection
    A temp of 104 degrees or higher after the first 24h and occurring on at least 2 of the first 10 days after childbirth.
  28. Purpura
    larger (greater than 3 mm) areas of nonblanching, red, blue, or purplish spots that are the result of intradermal hemorrhage (bruising), often the result of a low platelet count.
  29. Pica
    Ingestion of nonnutritive substances, such as starch, clay, flour, ice, dirt
  30. Viability (viable pregnancy)
    the ability of the fetus to survive outside of the uterus
  31. Biparietal Diameter
    the diameter of the fetal head as measured from one parietal eminence to the other
  32. Ultrasonography
    imaging of deep structures of the body by recording the echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues and reflected by tissue planes where there is a change in density
  33. L/S Ratio
    the ratio of lechithin-phosphatidyl choline to sphingomelin, a 'bench' parameter used to determine infant lung maturity and predict the infant's ability to survive without developing respiratory distress
  34. Fetal Movement Count
    • fetal movement counting, "kick counting," is a way a mother can help monitor the movements of her unborn baby by counting the number of kicks in a certain time period.
    • 30 minutes after eating should feel 4 kicks
    • Morning/evening-10 kicks each 1 hour session
  35. Non-stress Test (NST)
    a method for evaluating fetal status during the antepartum period by observing for accelerations of the fetal heart rate
  36. Biophysical Profile (BPP)
    method for evaluating fetal status during the antepartum period based on 5 fetal variables: fetal heart rate variability, fetal breathing movements, gross body movements, muscle tone, and amniotic fluid volume (AFI)
  37. Reactivity
    • a period of sleep or decreased activity in the early hours after birth
    • 1st period begins at birth. Infants are wide awake, alert, and interested in their surroundings. Temp decreases, HR increase to 180 BPM, RR 80; rales, retractions, nasal flaring, increased mucous secretions may be present. Pulse and RR gradual slows and the baby becomes sleepy.
    • Infants fall into a deep sleep
    • Second Period-infants become interested in feeding and may pass meconium. HR, RR, mucous secretions increase and infants may gag or regurgitate
  38. Contraction Stress Test (CST)
    method for evaluating fetal status during the antepartum period by observing the response of the fetal heart to intermittent stress induced uterine contractions. "Oxytocin Challenge Test" (OCT)
  39. Newborn Jaundice
    when a baby has high levels of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow substance that the body creates when it replaces old RBCs. The liver helps to break down the substance so it can be removed from the body in the stool. The high level of bilirubin makes the baby's skin and whites of the eyes look yellow
  40. Acculturation
    the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of adaptation that are superior to those of other groups
  41. Ethnocentrism
    the feeling that one's group has a mode of living, values, and patterns of adaptation that are superior to those of other groups
  42. Cognitive Processes
    the mental processes used by an individual to learn and retain information
  43. Molar Pregnancy (hydatidiform mole)
    tissue that normally becomes a fetus instead becomes an abnormal growth in your uterus. Even though it isn't an embryo, this growth triggers symptoms of pregnancy
  44. Psychosocial Responses
    relating to how a person responds to both the psychological and the social aspects of something, or relating to something that has both of these aspects
  45. Chadwick's Sign
    bluish purple discoloration of the cervix, vagina, and labia during pregnancy as a result of increased vascular congestion
  46. Microencephaly
    small brain; this condition is often characterized by a small head and neurological problems; the type and symptoms are variable.
  47. Gestational Sac
    round-shaped structure usually located in the upper fundus of the uterus early in pregnancy. It comprises embryo, amniotic fluid, and yolk sac. It is visible in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY by the 5th week of pregnancy. Its size is often used to determine and monitor GESTATIONAL AGE, FETAL GROWTH, and PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS
  48. Non-viable Pregnancy
    a pregnancy in which there is no chance of a live infant birth (ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy, pregnancy in which fetal heart beat is lost)
  49. TORCH Screen
    • a blood test that is designed to screen for a group of infectious agents
    • T-toxoplasma gondii
    • O-other viruses (HIV, measles, etc)
    • R=rubella
    • C-cytomegalovirus
    • H-herpes simplex
    • All of these infectious agents are teratogens. The TORCH infectious agents are among the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality
  50. Leopold's Maneuver's
    gentle palpation of the lateral, upper, and lower borders of the uterus to determine the position of the fetus (pg 342-343)
  51. Fetal Fibronectin
    a protein present in fetal tissues and normally found in the cervical and vaginal secretions until 16-20 weeks of gestation and again at or near term. A positive fFN test during midpregnancy may identify the woman is at risk for PTL (preterm labor)
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M/B Unit 2
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