2.6 Aortic and Carotid Disease
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What are macrophages filled with fat called?
What are foam cells?
Macrophages filled with fat
What 2 diseases are intimally related to atheroscerlosis?
- Diabetes (metabolic derangement)
- Hypertension (physical force)
What is the major complication of the atheroma?
- Hardening of the vessel
- Consequence of calcification, precipitated by local tissue degeneration
What are the 2 major complications of atheromas?
- Aneurysm formation
- Thrombi formation causing embolism
What is the most feared complication of Aortic Aneurysms?
Rupture and death by exsanguination
What material is the artificial vessel used to replace an aneurysm made of?
Dacron or Gortex material
What are the biggest reasons for Dissecting Ascending Aortic Aneurysms?
- 1. Hypertension
- 2. Marfans
Atherosclerosis affects the lower or upper extremities more?
What is an endarterectomy?
Surgical intervention involving the removal of plaque
What do the coronaries in coronary artery disease look like?
Rigid, heavily calcified cylinders that can be palpated beneath the epicardium
What do the lumina look like in coronary artery disease?
Narrowed due to prominent fibrotic plaques and atheromas
What do the walls of coronary arteries contain in coronary artery disease?
Deposits of calcium salts and cholesterol clefts
What is the cause of Sudden Cardiac Death?
- Consequence of a major cardiac arrhythmia (ie. V-fib) or later complete heart block and pump failure
- Happens in 1/4 of ppl that have MI
What are the 2 organs that are the most susceptible to anoxia?
Where is the infarction for the Subendocardial or Intramural MI?
- Concentric around the subendocardial layer of the left ventricle
- All of endocardium and 1/2 of myocardium involved
- (Other 1/2 of myocardium and epicardium are still viable)
What are the initial histologic findings of an MI?
- Myocardial cell death w/ wavy, eosinophilic myocytes, coagulative necrosis, and contraction bands
- Nuclei are faint or dead
- Appearance of PMN's will predominate for the next 2 days
Collagen + Angiogenesis =
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