2.6 Aortic and Carotid Disease

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  1. What are macrophages filled with fat called?
    Foam Cells
  2. What are foam cells?
    Macrophages filled with fat
  3. What 2 diseases are intimally related to atheroscerlosis?
    • Diabetes (metabolic derangement)
    • Hypertension (physical force)
  4. What is the major complication of the atheroma?
    • Hardening of the vessel
    • Consequence of calcification, precipitated by local tissue degeneration
  5. What are the 2 major complications of atheromas?
    • Aneurysm formation
    • Thrombi formation causing embolism
  6. What is the most feared complication of Aortic Aneurysms?
    Rupture and death by exsanguination
  7. What material is the artificial vessel used to replace an aneurysm made of?
    Dacron or Gortex material
  8. What are the biggest reasons for Dissecting Ascending Aortic Aneurysms?
    • 1. Hypertension
    • 2. Marfans
  9. Atherosclerosis affects the lower or upper extremities more?
    Legs more
  10. What is an endarterectomy?
    Surgical intervention involving the removal of plaque
  11. What do the coronaries in coronary artery disease look like?
    Rigid, heavily calcified cylinders that can be palpated beneath the epicardium
  12. What do the lumina look like in coronary artery disease?
    Narrowed due to prominent fibrotic plaques and atheromas
  13. What do the walls of coronary arteries contain in coronary artery disease?
    Deposits of calcium salts and cholesterol clefts
  14. What is the cause of Sudden Cardiac Death?
    • Consequence of a major cardiac arrhythmia (ie. V-fib) or later complete heart block and pump failure
    • Happens in 1/4 of ppl that have MI
  15. What are the 2 organs that are the most susceptible to anoxia?
    • Kidneys
    • Brain
  16. Where is the infarction for the Subendocardial or Intramural MI?
    • Concentric around the subendocardial layer of the left ventricle
    • All of endocardium and 1/2 of myocardium involvedĀ 
    • (Other 1/2 of myocardium and epicardium are still viable)
  17. What are the initial histologic findings of an MI?
    • Myocardial cell death w/ wavy, eosinophilic myocytes, coagulative necrosis, and contraction bands
    • Nuclei are faint or dead
    • Appearance of PMN's will predominate for the next 2 days
  18. Collagen + Angiogenesis =
    Granulation Tissue
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2.6 Aortic and Carotid Disease
2014-01-16 00:29:26
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