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Final approach fix
- Fix from which the instrument final approach segment to an airport begins
- Non-precision - Maltese cross
- Precision - lightning bolt
Expect further clearance (EFC)
The time you can expect to receive clearance beyond the assigned holding fix
T or F: Holding directly over a NAVAID normally uses timing to determine leg length.
Why must you select OBS when performing GPS holding?
Otherwise, at the fix, the GPS will step to the next waypoint
When do you begin slowing to holding speed?
- Within three minutes from holding or clearance limit
- 150 KIAS
- Altitude > 14,000 - 1.5min
- Altitude < 14,000 - 1 min
When to start timing:
- Abeam the fix outbound or rolling out of the turn wings level outbound
- DME matches that of the fix
When to use the direct holding entry for holding
If inbound holding course is within 70 of aircraft heading
When to use the parallel entry for holding
Inbound holding course is not within 70 of aircraft heading
When to use a teardrop entry for holding
- Anytime you aircraft is heading conveniently aligned with the selected teardrop heading
- Within 45 of selected teardrop heading
Holding wind correction
- Note the number of degrees of crab to maintain course on inbound leg
- Triple that number for outbound correction
When should ATC issue the approach clearance, or an amended EFC?
At least 5min prior to the last EFC you were issued
If you reach EFC time and are unable to contact ATC, what do you do?
Expect to commence the desired approach as close to EFC as possible
When are you considered established in the holding pattern?
Upon initial passage of the holding fix
For an AIM teardrop entry, turn ____ to a heading for a ____ teardrop entry on the holding side.
What would you like to do?
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