Name the routes of administration and their bioavailability value
IV - 1
IM - 0.85
SQ - 0.75
PO - 0.45-0.56
IP - 0.45
Per rectum - 0.21
This is the movement of drug molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a semi-permeable membrane:
Does passive diffusion require energy?
This is the movement of drug molecules being surrounded by a carrier molecule within the cell membrane and carried into the cell usually from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration:
Does facilitated diffusion require energy?
This is the movement of drug molecules that are surrounded by carrier molecules within the cell membrane and carried into the cell against the concentration gradient:
Does active transport require energy?
This is where the drug molecules particularly large proteins and intact antibiotics are surrounded and/or engulfed by the cell's membrane and taken within the cell
Do pino/phagocytosis require energy?
This is the movement of drug molecules from systemic circulation into tissues
This is the degree to which an administered drugs is absorbed.
This is the breaking up of a drug into smaller particles to be absorbed
What form of drugs does not have a dissolution phase?
Describe ion trapping:
A drug in lipophilic form penetrates the cell membrane and enters the cell. The pH within the cell causes a dramatic shift to the hydrophilic form and the drug can no longer passively diffuse out of the cell. However since there is a set ratio of hydrophilic to lipophilic molecules any lipophilic molecules will diffuse out of the cell causing other hydrophilic molecules to convert to lipophilic to maintain that set ratio. Eventually this allows the drug to pass into systemic circulatiion.
What are SR tablets and why aren't they used much in small animal medicine?
Sustained Release tables are designed to dissolve slowly to allow small amounts of drug to be released into the system over a long period of time. Since the digestive tract of canine and feline patients is much shorter than humans, the drug will not have enough time to dissolve and be absorbed
Describe the first pass effect:
Once a drug is absorbed into systemic circulation it goes to the liver via the hepatic portal system. The liver assumes the drug is a foreign substance or xenobiotic and removes a substantial amount before allowing the remainder to reenter general circulation.
This is an drug completely dissolved in a sweetened alcohol base that is only administered orally.
An example of an elixir would be:
This is a drug completely dissolved in a heavy sugar solution like 85% dextrose.
An example of a syrup would be:
These forms of medications are thicker than lotions and liniments that usually liquify at body temperature:
Ointments and pastes
What is the difference between and ointment and paste
Ointment is applied topically only
Paste is administered orally only
This form of medication is thicker than liniments that is meant to be dabbed or brushed on skin.
This is a drug dissolved in an alcohol solution that is meant to only be applied topically.
This is a small glass container that is opened by snapping of the neck and is for single use injectable medication.
This is the removal of a drug from the body.
What are the two main type of excretion?
4 factors that slow excretion
Increased Sympathetic Tone
This describes how long it takes for the drug concentration in the blood to decrease by 50%.
drug half life
What is used to measure drug elimination?
a drug's half-life
This is the period from the last administration of drugs to when the animal can be legally slaughtered for human consumption or products like milk/eggs can be consumed.
This is when the concentration highs (peaks) and concentration lows (troughs) of a drug are roughly the same within the blood after 5 half-lives.
How is the steady state calculated?
5 x t1/2 = steady state
An acid environment is better penetrated by which form of a drug?
An alkaline environment is better penetrated by which form of a drug?
This is the state where the ionized to non-ionized ratio of a drug is 1:1 and describes a drugs alkaline or acid nature.
An acid drug is predominantly in which form in an acid environment?
An alkaline drugs is predominantly in which form in an alkaline environment?
A single use glass container with a rubber stopper that separates the solute from the diluent.
This is a drug made from ground up plant and animal parts that have been treated, filtered, refined and prepared into some medical form usually in batches or lots.
This refers to a type of drug that requires it to go through biotranformation phase 1 to become active.
ex: prednisone (K9) > b/t 1 > prednisolone (Fel)
Describe the MFO system:
Mixed Function Oxidase system is the most common group of enzymes in biotransformation phase 1. Repeatedly used drugs cause an increase in the number of enzymes available. This increases the rate at which these drugs are metabolized, thus causing induced metabolism
Describe Biotransformation Phase I.
After the drug exerts its effect and decomposes, it is returned back to the liver where it is either oxidized, reduced or hydrolized by the MFO system to a generally less active metabolite
Describe Biotransformation Phase II
After phase one the metabolite is conjugated with another molecule such as glucaronic acid, sulfate or glycine. This produces a more hydrophilic metabolite. Excretion is then possible by the kidney or liver since the hydrophilic form is unable to be reabsorbed through the lumen
This class of drugs has a HIGH potential for abuse and may lead to severe physiologic and psychological dependence.
ex: opium, ketamine, morphine
This class of drugs has SOME potential for abuse and may lead to low to moderate physiologic and high psychological dependence.
ex: barbituates, Telazol
This class of drugs has LOW potiential for abuse and has limited physiologic and psychological dependence.
ex: butorphanol, valium
This class of drugs has the LOWEST potential for abuse and is subject to state and local regulations.
This is the initial dose to reach theraputic range.
This is the dose needed to hold the level of drug in t he middle of the theraputic range.
What temperature is considered Cold Storage?
not to exceed 46 F
What temperature is considered Cool Storage?
between 46 and 59 F
What temperature is considered Room Temperature?
59 to 86 F
What temperature is considered Warm Storage?
between 86 and 104 F
What is considered Excessive Heat
greater than 104 F
How does perfusion affect absorption?
Well perfused tissues will absorb injected drugs quicker than poorly perfused tissues
How does perfusion affect distribution?
Well perfused tissues will show higher concentrations of drug than poorly perfused tissues
Name 4 well perfused tissues
Name 4 poorly perfused tissues
Name 4 barriers to drug passage
Globe of the eye
This is an approximation of the extent to which a drug is distributed throughout the body - a larger number = more tissues penetrated
Volume of distribution (Vd)
This is a type of suspension in which two compounds are mixed in a jelly-like substance.
This is a type if suspension in which a drug mixed into an oil to be rubbed into the skin
This is where a drug is used safely and successfully by veterinarians but not specifically approved by the FDA
off (extra) label use
Which act place the FDA in the role of watchdog over the way veterinary drugs are used?
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act
Which act in 1994 gave Veterinarians the authority to use approved drugs in an off (extra) label manner?
The Animal Medical Drug Use Clarification Act
Requirements for a valid Rx:
Name, address, current phone number of veterinarian or clinic/hospital
Client's name, address
Rx to mean "take thou of"
Drug name, concentration, number and type of units dispensed
Sig - to mean "write or label"
DEA # if it is a controlled substance
This is the term given to a drug that can be produced by multiple companies once the patent coverage is no longer in effect and is only required to be 90% pure by the FDA to be licensed.
Food and Drug Administration
Drug Enforcement Administration
Material Safety Data Sheet
What does the MSDS contain?
Guidelines for protective precautions, clean up procedures, and first aid for accidental exposure to whichever substance the sheet is about.
What does a TM or an encircled R stand for?
Trademark or registered name = a name only that manufacturer may legally use, has the patent for by the federal government which allows them to recoup money spent on its development
This is a drug suspended in an emulsion of egg lecithin and soybean oil
np = propofol
This is a powdered drug compressed into a disk
This is a powdered drug surrounded by a gelatin casing
This is a powdered drug mixed with lactose or dextrose
Chewable Molded Tablet
This is a powdered drug mixed with and incorporated into a hard candy not generally used in Veterinary medicine
This is a type of suspension where two immiscible liquids when mixed together, one is suspended in small globules in the other
This is a general term applied to a solute that completely dissolves in a diluent and will not settle out
This is a general term applied to a solute that does not dissolve completely in a diluent when mixed and will settle out
This is a substance that had the potential for physical, psychological addiction and/or abuse
This means to write or label
abbreviation for "every night at bedtime"
at once abbreviation
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What is OSHA for?
Provides a handbook that outlines guidelines for safe handling, storage, use, clean up and disposal of chemicals/drugs
Normal Saline abbreviation
after meals abbreviation
as needed abbreviation
Four times a day abbreviation
every other day abbreviation
Physician's Desk Reference
Veterinary Pharmaceuticals and Biologics
Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs
Old name for the DEA
Components to therapeutic drug use
1. route of administration
3. dose interval
Routes of Administration
intravenous - IV
intramuscular - IM
subcutaneous - SQ
oral - PO
intraperitoneal - IP
This is the amount of time between administration of separate doses
This is the dose interval and the dosage
This is the product of the dose and frequency of administration
total daily dose
This refers to how a drug is metabolized depending on the nature of the drug and the body's responses
The 4 classic drug movement steps
This is the movement from the site of administration to systemic blood circulation
What constitutes an OTC drug?
Based on toxicity and is determined by how adequately instructions made for the lay person to use with clarity and consistency
How many mL in 1 oz?
How many mL in 1 L
How many mL in 1 T
How many mL in 1 tsp?
How many milligrams in 1 g
How many grams in 1 oz
How many mg in 1 grain
before meals abbreviation
Packet Insert Terms
Description of compostion
This is the chemical definition on a package insert
Description of composition
This is a list for which a drug is approved on a package insert
These are reasons to use a drug on a package insert
These are reasons NOT to use the drug on a package insert
These are potentially fatal reactions on a package insert
These are undesirable reactions that could occur to make the animal sick on a package insert
These are any normal effect of a drug other than intended for therapeutic effect on a package insert
two times a day abbreviation
as desired abbreviation
once a day abbreviation
three times a day abbreviation
Veterinary Technician definition
A student that has graduated from an AVMA accredited program
What 3 things can a vet tech not do
right eye abbreviations
left eye abbreviation
both eyes abbreviation
by mouth abbreviation
According to Bill what does PO mean
via a body opening
This is the movement of a drug from a tissue back to the blood and then to a second tissue
This is the movement of a drug from the intestinal tract, to the liver, to the blood and tissue, back to the liver, to the intestinal tract, then reabsorbed back from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver
This refers to a drug that combines with a receptor and cause a cell to produce a physiological change
How do you determine a drugs absorption degree according to availability?
Multiply the dose by the bioavailability factor
This is the lowest concentration of an antibiotic drug within theraputic range that stops bacterial growth
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
This means decrease in number of platelets
This is a general term for disease causing agents
This refers to the range of bacteria that can be killed by a particular antimicrobial
Spectrum of activity
This means to "kill" bacteria
This refers to traces of leftover drug in the tissues long after the antimicrobial drug has been stopped
This is the chemical structure found in Penicilllins and Cephalosporins that some bacteria produce enzymes that target it for destruction
Beta lactam ring
This means having an allergic reaction to a drug
This is the process by which one compound binds to another compound, causing it to precipitate our of solution and occurs in tetracyclines and calcium
This means toxic to the kidney and occurs with aminoglycosides
This is the presence of crystals, typically precipitated drug molecules, in the urine
This means "skin plant" and refers to fungal agents such as "ringworm"
This is a term referring to the depression or stopping of bone marrow production of blood cells and occurs with chloramphenicol
This is the enzyme that is the target of quinolones and prevents the nuclear material of bacteria from being condensed thus preventing division
Most often associated with tetracyclines, this drug-induced condition results in a glucosuria without hyperglycemia
This means to inhibit bacterial growth
This means a decreased number of white blood cells
This term indicates bacteria can be inhibited or killed by a particular drug
This occurs when an oral antibiotic kills off the beneficial bacteria in the GI tract and allows pathogenic bacterial proliferation
This means toxic to the ear and occurs with aminoglycosides
This is a condition often associated with sulfonamides and is commonly called dry eye due to decreased function of the tear glands
Keratoconjuctivitis sicca (KCS)
This is the process by which bacteria are isolated and their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs is determined
Culture and sensitivity
This is a class of microbes that grow under conditions with little or no oxygen
This means produces pus
This means to cause birth defects and is associated with griseofulvin use in cats
Proprietary name for Griseofulvin
This term translates to "against life"
This refers to bacterial resistance to several related antimicrobial drugs
This is the enzyme produced by some bacteria that can disable penicillins and cephalosporins
This means that a bacteria cannot be killed by a particular drug
This class of microbes require oxygen to grow
Give the 5 Antimicrobial mechanisms of action and an example(s) of each
1) Interferes with formation of bacterial cell wall - Penicillins/Cephalosporins
2) Damages bacterial cell membrane (none given)
3) Interferes with protein synthesis via ribosome interruption -