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prior learning can interfere with recall of newer information
new learning can interfere with the recall of older information
- sometimes old learning can facilitate new learning (e.g., knowing
- Latin can make it easier to learn Spanish)
People unknowingly revise their memories
- A defense
- mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from
- increasing numbers of memory researchers think repression rarely, if ever,
- Incorporating misleading information into one's memory
- of an event. People later find it nearly
- impossible to discriminate between memories of real and suggested events.
- Even imagining events can lead to false memories
amnesia (or source misattribution)--
- Attributing an event to the wrong source that we
- experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution).
- memories are accurate or not, people express similar levels of confidence
Are memories of abuse repressed or
- Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories.
- However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be
False Memory Syndrome
A condition in which a person’s identity and
- relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a
experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are
implanted in individuals, they ______ their memories.
ways on Improving Memory
- repeatedly to boost long-term recall.
- more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material.
- material personally meaningful.
- with peg words — something already stored
- retrieval cues — mentally recreate the situation and mood.
- events while they are fresh — before you encounter misinformation.
- 1.Test your
- own knowledge.
- and then determine what you do not yet know.