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  1. A state which fluid concentrations are equal on two sides of a cell membrane (due to freely moving water between cells and extracellular fluid).
    Osmotic equilibrium
  2. When solutes are more concentrated in one of the two body compartments than the other (ECF and ICF).
    Chemical disequilibrium
  3. When cations and anions are unevenly distributed, a few extra negative ions are found in ICF which results in the inside of the cell being slightly negative relative to ECF.
    Electrical disequilibrium
  4. The difference in density.
    Concentration difference
  5. The difference in concentration of a substance in two places.
    Concentration gradient
  6. Concentration has equalized throughout system, but molecules continue to move.
    Dynamic equilibrium
  7. The relationship between two variables when their ratio is equal to a constant value.
    Directly proportional
  8. A relationship where a number either increases as another decreases, or decreases as another increases.
    Inversely proportional
  9. The ability of a substance to pass through a membrane.
  10. The ability of molecules to pass through phospholipid bilayer – lipophilic molecules can and lipophobic molecules cannot.
    Lipid solubility
  11. The separation of particles in a liquid on the basis of their ability to pass through a membrane.
  12. The measure of osmotic pressure gradient – the cell volume changes that occur at equilibrium if cell is placed in that solution.
  13. Solution that has the same osmotic pressure as body fluid (does not change size when placed in solution).
  14. Solution that has lower osmotic pressure than that of body fluid (gains water and swells when placed in solution).
  15. Solution that his higher osmotic pressure than that of body fluid (loses water and shrinks when placed in solution).
  16. The osmotic effect of plasma proteins which are too large to pass through membrane.
    Colloid osmotic pressure
  17. Same as colloid osmotic pressure – opposite of hydrostatic pressure.
    Oncotic pressure
  18. A process resulting from osmosis in which RBC’s in hypertonic solution shrink and acquire a notched or scalloped edge.
  19. Destruction of RBC’s with subsequent release of hemoglobin.
  20. The pressure required to prevent a solvent from passing into a given solution by osmosis – exactly opposes a given concentration gradient.
    Osmotic pressure
  21. The number of particles (ions or intact molecules) per liter of solution expressed in miliosmoles per liter (mOsm).
  22. Contribute to osmolarity of a solution but not to the tonicity of that solution (particles that can enter a cell).
    Penetrating solutes
  23. The relative concentration of these in a cell or solution determine tonicity (particles that cannot enter a cell).
    Non-penetrating solutes
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