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What is Capgras Delusion ?
- Can identify objects (LEFT HEMISPHERE) but can not give emotional familiarity to the object
- Damage in the RIGHT hemisphere
- Message goes to the TEMPORAL lobe but connections to the AMEGDALA (emotional response) is severed
- Neurons from AUDITORY complex to AMEGDALA are not severed so does have emotion when talking to someone over the phone
- Recognition identification is distributed in the brain
Who is Phineas Gage?
- Iron pole damaged FRONTAL LOBE
- Drastic personality change (Basic needs)
- Died of seizure
What is Cotard Delusion ?
Look at the self but can not recognize themselves. There is no emotion and they think they are zombies and are dead.
What is the function of the Hindbrain ?
Basic life fuctions
What is the function of the Midbrain ?
- Transition from the body to the brain
What is the function of the Corpus Colunus ?
Joins the 4 parts + the neurons between all 4 main sections of the brain
What is the function of the Thalamus ?
Relay station, sensory info passes through here to perietal lobe to be processed
What is the function of the Hypothalamus ?
Regulation of body function (temperature, hormonal flow ect), metabolic function
What does the Broca area do ?
- Deals with speech
- People with damage to this area are not able to produce speech but can understand what is being asked
- Use Telegraphic Speech = content words of them trying to express things (me..go..mall)
What does the Wernicke area do ?
- Failure to comprehend speech - not sensable sentences or words 'word salad'
- Symptom is Ecophilia = repeat the exact same question being asked of them
Do both the Broca area & the Wernicke area communicate with each other through the auditory section ?
What is the Left Hemispheric Specialization ?
- Verbal memory
What is the Right Hemispheric Specialization ?
- Non-verbal memory
- Spatial aspects
What is the order of the Neuron ?
Dendrites -> Soma -> Axon -> Axon terminals
Where does the electrical signal go through in the neuron ?
What is the Electroencephalogram (EEG) ?
- Place nets of electrodes on the surface of the scalp
- Tells you the accurate TIME (Temporal) but very broad on the area of activity (Spacial)
What is a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) ?
- Use of electrical impulses put over an area of the brain & it knocks out those signals for a short period of time
- Used in treatment of depression
- There is a potential for making the effects long term if using it ofter
What are PET scans ?
put in radio active substance to see where the sugars are being used
What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ?
- Creates a static image
- Use a strong magnetic signal to make the hydrogen atoms act in a specific way
- Registers the density of the signal
- You can use this with other scans to create better scans
What is a fMRI ?
- Hemoglobin depleated due to nurishment of neurons - when the hemoglobin is depleted then that area is working in the brain
- BOLD signal (Blood oxygenation level dependent)
What were Roger Sperry's experiments ?
- Patients had extreme levels of epilepsy
- Operation to sever the CORPUS COLLUSUM to stop any further damage
What are the Rods function ?
Light vs dark
What are the Cones function ?
- Color & Detail
- Central attention
What are the functions of the Bipolar Cells ?
Communicating with Rods & Cones & Ganglion cells
What are the functions of the Ganglion Cells ?
Send information out of the eye into the brain
What are the functions of the Horizontal Cells ?
Mediating laterally with Cones, Rods, & Bipolar cells
What are the functions of the Amacrine Cells ?
Mediating laterally with Bipolar & Ganglion cells
What is the Convergence on Rods ?
A lot of rods are giving information to a single ganglion so not able to get a lot of detail
What is the Convergence on Cones ?
Cones are able to give more information & more detail because it is a 1:1
What specialized cells are located in the Fovea ?
What specialized cells have a Large Receptive Field ?
What is Sensory Information ?
The data & actual photons of light creating information to ganglion cells to the brain
What is Perceptual Information ?
Conscious awareness of what we see with NO blind spots
What is Cyclopian Vision ?
Unified vision of the world
What is the Moch Band illusion ?
- Flat areas of color, the edges of each band tend to be different then the middle
- Edges of grey scale darker on the Right side & lighter on the Left
What colors emerge from the Small-Wave Rods ?
Black & Blue
What colors emerge from the Medium-Wave Rods ?
Green & Yellow
What colors emerge from the Large-Wave Rods ?
What is Bottom-Up process ?
Sensory data processing
What is Top-Down process ?
- Processing concept driven processing
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