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2014-01-20 16:49:03
Chapter Two

Vision, scanning machines, lesions of the brain
Show Answers:

  1. What is Capgras Delusion ?
    • Can identify objects (LEFT HEMISPHERE) but can not give emotional familiarity to the object
    • Damage in the RIGHT hemisphere
    • Message goes to the TEMPORAL lobe but connections to the AMEGDALA (emotional response) is severed
    • Neurons from AUDITORY complex to AMEGDALA are not severed so does have emotion when talking to someone over the phone
    • Recognition identification is distributed in the brain
  2. Who is Phineas Gage?
    • Iron pole damaged FRONTAL LOBE
    • Drastic personality change (Basic needs)
    • Died of seizure
  3. What is Cotard Delusion ?
    Look at the self but can not recognize themselves. There is no emotion and they think they are zombies and are dead.
  4. What is the function of the Hindbrain ?
    Basic life fuctions
  5. What is the function of the Midbrain ?
    • Transition from the body to the brain
    • Pain
  6. What is the function of the Corpus Colunus ?
    Joins the 4 parts + the neurons between all 4 main sections of the brain
  7. What is the function of the Thalamus ?
    Relay station, sensory info passes through here to perietal lobe to be processed
  8. What is the function of the Hypothalamus ?
    Regulation of body function (temperature, hormonal flow ect), metabolic function
  9. What does the Broca area do ?
    • Deals with speech
    • People with damage to this area are not able to produce speech but can understand what is being asked 
    • Use Telegraphic Speech = content words of them trying to express things (me..go..mall)
  10. What does the Wernicke area do ?
    • Failure to comprehend speech - not sensable sentences or words 'word salad'
    • Symptom is Ecophilia = repeat the exact same question being asked of them
  11. Do both the Broca area & the Wernicke area communicate with each other through the auditory section ?
  12. What is the Left Hemispheric Specialization ?
    • Speech
    • Movement 
    • Verbal memory
  13. What is the Right Hemispheric Specialization ?
    • Visual
    • Non-verbal memory
    • Spatial aspects
  14. What is the order of the Neuron ?
    Dendrites -> Soma -> Axon -> Axon terminals
  15. Where does the electrical signal go through in the neuron ?
  16. What is the Electroencephalogram (EEG) ?
    • Place nets of electrodes on the surface of the scalp
    • Tells you the accurate TIME (Temporal) but very broad on the area of activity (Spacial)
  17. What is a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) ?
    • Use of electrical impulses put over an area of the brain & it knocks out those signals for a short period of time
    • Used in treatment of depression
    • There is a potential for making the effects long term if using it ofter
  18. What are CT scans ?
    • X-ray
    • Cheap
  19. What are PET scans ?
    put in radio active substance to see where the sugars are being used
  20. What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ?
    • Creates a static image
    • Use a strong magnetic signal to make the hydrogen atoms act in a specific way
    • Registers the density of the signal
    • You can use this with other scans to create better scans
  21. What is a fMRI ?
    • Dynamic
    • Hemoglobin depleated due to nurishment of neurons - when the hemoglobin is depleted then that area is working in the brain
    • BOLD signal (Blood oxygenation level dependent)
  22. What were Roger Sperry's experiments ?
    • Patients had extreme levels of epilepsy
    • Operation to sever the CORPUS COLLUSUM to stop any further damage
  23. What are the Rods function ?
    Light vs dark
  24. What are the Cones function ?
    • Color & Detail
    • Central attention
  25. What are the functions of the Bipolar Cells ?
    Communicating with Rods & Cones & Ganglion cells
  26. What are the functions of the Ganglion Cells ?
    Send information out of the eye into the brain
  27. What are the functions of the Horizontal Cells ?
    Mediating laterally with Cones, Rods, & Bipolar cells
  28. What are the functions of the Amacrine Cells ?
    Mediating laterally with Bipolar & Ganglion cells
  29. What is the Convergence on Rods ?
    A lot of rods are giving information to a single ganglion so not able to get a lot of detail
  30. What is the Convergence on Cones ?
    Cones are able to give more information & more detail because it is a 1:1
  31. What specialized cells are located in the Fovea ?
  32. What specialized cells have a Large Receptive Field ?
  33. What is Sensory Information ?
    The data & actual photons of light creating information to ganglion cells to the brain
  34. What is Perceptual Information ?
    Conscious awareness of what we see with NO blind spots
  35. What is Cyclopian Vision ?
    Unified vision of the world
  36. What is the Moch Band illusion ?
    • Flat areas of color, the edges of each band tend to be different then the middle
    • Edges of grey scale darker on the Right side & lighter on the Left
  37. What colors emerge from the Small-Wave Rods ?
    Black & Blue
  38. What colors emerge from the Medium-Wave Rods ?
    Green & Yellow
  39. What colors emerge from the Large-Wave Rods ?
  40. What is Bottom-Up process ?
    Sensory data processing
  41. What is Top-Down process ?
    • Experiencing
    • Memory
    • Processing concept driven processing