Bio 1215-chapter 2
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Bio 1215-chapter 2
An overview life diversity
An overview of life's diversity
who came up with the
first hierarchical system
degree of relatedness can be estimated by comparing what four things?
embryonic or juvenile development
similarity of sequence of DNA/RNA
appearance of novel features
what are the 3 domains of life?
attack living cells
Each particle of a virus is called a _______. Describe this particle.
nucleic acid in a protein bag
viruses copy by _________ a living cell
what do viruses use to make more virions?
host cell's enzymes and raw materials
virion must bond to _______________ of a host cell. Then the viral nucleic acid enters the host.
what 3 things might suggest that viruses are alive?
carry nucleic acid
use same genetic code as all life
what 2 things suggest that living things are NOT alive?
cannot reproduce independently
viruses probably descended from?
how are prokaryotes considered diverse?
diverse in terms of
metabolism and habitats
what are the 3 general features of bacteria?
but may form
what is an example of a prokaryote?
what is the advantage of bacteria having lots of membrane?
more membrane means there is
more surface area to undergo reactions
such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Bacteria cell walls contain ____________. Describe it.
sugar and peptides
describe gram-positive bacteria.
describe gram-negative bacteria.(2)
second outer membrane
what are the 3 bacteria cell shapes?
Many bacteria also secrete an outer, sticky capsule, for what function?
adhesion and protection
Bacteria cells may have hairlike extensions, for what function?
fasten to host and attach for conjugation.
what are 3 ways bacteria are motile?
spinning helical filaments
what is the term used for the movement towards or away from certain stimuli?
what are chemotaxis and phototaxis?
: movement to and from chemicals
: movement to and from light
Most DNA of bacteria are in one ring-shaped chromosome. They may also contain smaller rings of DNA called?
can be transferred/traded between cells
genes are not essential but may be useful in certain conditions
Bacteria reproduce via___________ or some produce dormant _______________.
what are the 3 ways that bacteria reproduce?
: taking in
external DNA from the surroundings
direct transfer of DNA from once cell to another
accidental transfer by viruses
what are the 5 main groups of bacteria?
Describe 2 things about cyanobacteria.
capable of fixing nitrogen
Describe 2 things about proteobacteria. Give an example.
ncludes facultative anaerobes
Describe 2 things about chlamydia.
intracellular animal parasites
can cause STD and blindness
Describe 2 things about spirochetes.
eat dead stuff or are parasites
Describe a thing about gram-positive bacteria.
but includes causes of
tuberculosis, leprosy, and botulism
Describe 4 things about archaea.
look like bacteria but are closely related to eukaryotes
no peptidoglycans in cell wall
unique lipids in membrane
many live in anaerobic or extreme environments (extremophiles)
what are the difference between thermophiles and halophiles?
: live in hot water
: live in very salty water
Prokaryotes "invented" most ________________.
what are 5 things that show the "importance" of prokaryotes?
cycle of chemicals
symbiotic relationships with other species
some of the
by some species are
used for antibiotics
genetically-engineered bacteria used to produce insulin
+ other drugs
produce yogurt and cheese
what is an example of how prokaryotes cycle chemicals? what are they useful for?
photosynthetic cyanobacteria that 'fix" carb
on (construct organic molecules from CO2); only nitrogen fixers
useful for sewage plants; oil spill clean ups
how can some prokaryotes cause many diseases? (2)
growth and invasion