summerc ch.40

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summerc ch.40
2014-01-16 20:56:09

nursing fund. ch.40
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  1. What are the 5 common physical care problems of the elderly?
    • Impaired mobility
    • Alteration in elimination
    • Alteration in nutrition
    • Sensory deficits
    • Polypharmacy
    • chronic diseases, parkinson's disease,arthritis, emphysema, cadiac disease
  2. Alterations in mobility and effects of aging are?
    • Major loss of calcium
    • Decreased bone density
    • Decreased muscle mass
    • Loss of joint flexibility
  3. Some nursing interventions and ways to prevent falls are?
    • Assess medications
    • Changing positions slowly
    • Use of a gait belt if needed
    • Educate to keep active
    • Ensure proper arthritis and osteoporosis Treatment
    • Limit bed confinement
  4. More ways to prevent falls?
    • Use of assistive devices such as canes or walker
    • Bed in low position
    • Call bell in reach
    • Brakes on w/c locked
    • Clear path, no spills
    • Good lighting
    • Call bell answered quickly
    • Home environment inspected for safety
  5. Common physical problems in elderly
    • Urinary incontinence( part of acute or chronic prob)
    • Altered sphincter control
    • Loss of bladder muscle tone
    • Enlarged prostate
    • Cystocele, rectocele
    • Uterine prolapsed
    • Poor kidney function
  6. Nursing Interventions for urinary incontinence.
    (One of the main reasons for instiututionalism)
    • Assess for cause
    • Bladder retraining
    • Prompted voiding
    • Habit voiding
    • Prevent skin breakdown
    • Easy-release clothing
  7. Some common physical care problems of the elderly are what if they are constipated?
    • Decreased bowel activity
    • Bed rest
    • Pain mediation
    • Poor diet
  8. Signs and symptoms of constipation
    • Abdominal cramping
    • Rectal pain,
    • Abdominal distention,
    • The passing of small amounts of liquid stool
    • Loss of appetite
  9. Nursing interventions for constipation or fecal impaction diet remedies?
    • Hot lemon juice first thing in a.m.
    • Prunes or prune juice
    • Carbonated drinks
    • Bran cereal or whole wheat grains
    • Raw fruits/ Veggies
    • More fluid intake 2500ml 
    • Exercise
    • Advise patient not to bare down
  10. Common physical problems of the elderly when there is poor nutrition?
    • Diseased teeth
    • Poorly fitted dentures
    • Decline in taste buds
    • Decline in sense of smell
    • Dysphagia
  11. Nursing Interventions for nutritional support?
    • Make food attractive
    • make environment pleasent
    • Liquid dietary supplement may be necessary
    • Tube feedings and parenteral feedings may be necessary
  12. Signs of a vision deficit in the elderly?
    • Ability to see objects far and near as a result of weak eye muscles
    • Presbyopia
    • glaucoma
    • Accumulation of fluid on the eye causing pressure on the nerve =blindness
    • Cataracts
    • Clouding of the lens'
    • Macular degeneration
    • Gradual loss of acute, central, and color vision
  13. Nursing interventions for the visually impaired?
    • Orient patient in new environments
    • Use bright lights/ remove hazards
    • Identify yourself to patient
    • State when leaving
    • Dont rearrange
    • Offer arm when ambulating
    • Offer magnifiers, large print books, or talking books
  14. Hearing deficit in the elderly can lead to?
    • Presbycusis
    • Tinnitus
    • leads to frustration and embarassment
  15. Presbycusis
    inability to hear high pitched sounds and spoken words
  16. Tinnitus
    Ringing in the ears, may cause a further loss of hearing
  17. Nursing Interventions for the hearing Impaired?
    • Hearing aid, know how to operate
    • Face patient and speak clearly
    • Observe facial expressions for feedback
    • Speak in good ear if has one
    • Allow glasses so they can read lips
    • Environment noises kept to a min
    • Pad and pencil if message not clear
  18. Polypharmacy
    • Use of multiple medications
    • Result of multiple physicians each unaware of what they are prescribing
    • Drug interactions and toxicity, which can result in behavioral or cognitive changes
    • Rate at which drugs are metabolized and excreted
    • Aging kidney significantly less effective in excreting drugs
  19. Nursing Interventions for Polypharmacy
    • thorough medical history
    • Current prescriptions
    • OTC drugs
    • any vitamin
    • Comprehensive assessment
    • Eliminate unnecessary meds
    • Reduce the risk of adverse drug reactions
    • Reduce complexity of medication regimen