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What are the 5 common physical care problems of the elderly?
- Impaired mobility
- Alteration in elimination
- Alteration in nutrition
- Sensory deficits
- chronic diseases, parkinson's disease,arthritis, emphysema, cadiac disease
Alterations in mobility and effects of aging are?
- Major loss of calcium
- Decreased bone density
- Decreased muscle mass
- Loss of joint flexibility
Some nursing interventions and ways to prevent falls are?
- Assess medications
- Changing positions slowly
- Use of a gait belt if needed
- Educate to keep active
- Ensure proper arthritis and osteoporosis Treatment
- Limit bed confinement
More ways to prevent falls?
- Use of assistive devices such as canes or walker
- Bed in low position
- Call bell in reach
- Brakes on w/c locked
- Clear path, no spills
- Good lighting
- Call bell answered quickly
- Home environment inspected for safety
Common physical problems in elderly
- Urinary incontinence( part of acute or chronic prob)
- Altered sphincter control
- Loss of bladder muscle tone
- Enlarged prostate
- Cystocele, rectocele
- Uterine prolapsed
- Poor kidney function
Nursing Interventions for urinary incontinence.
(One of the main reasons for instiututionalism)
- Assess for cause
- Bladder retraining
- Prompted voiding
- Habit voiding
- Prevent skin breakdown
- Easy-release clothing
Some common physical care problems of the elderly are what if they are constipated?
- Decreased bowel activity
- Bed rest
- Pain mediation
- Poor diet
Signs and symptoms of constipation
- Abdominal cramping
- Rectal pain,
- Abdominal distention,
- The passing of small amounts of liquid stool
- Loss of appetite
Nursing interventions for constipation or fecal impaction diet remedies?
- Hot lemon juice first thing in a.m.
- Prunes or prune juice
- Carbonated drinks
- Bran cereal or whole wheat grains
- Raw fruits/ Veggies
- More fluid intake 2500ml
- Advise patient not to bare down
Common physical problems of the elderly when there is poor nutrition?
- Diseased teeth
- Poorly fitted dentures
- Decline in taste buds
- Decline in sense of smell
Nursing Interventions for nutritional support?
- Make food attractive
- make environment pleasent
- Liquid dietary supplement may be necessary
- Tube feedings and parenteral feedings may be necessary
Signs of a vision deficit in the elderly?
- Ability to see objects far and near as a result of weak eye muscles
- Accumulation of fluid on the eye causing pressure on the nerve =blindness
- Clouding of the lens'
- Macular degeneration
- Gradual loss of acute, central, and color vision
Nursing interventions for the visually impaired?
- Orient patient in new environments
- Use bright lights/ remove hazards
- Identify yourself to patient
- State when leaving
- Dont rearrange
- Offer arm when ambulating
- Offer magnifiers, large print books, or talking books
Hearing deficit in the elderly can lead to?
- leads to frustration and embarassment
inability to hear high pitched sounds and spoken words
Ringing in the ears, may cause a further loss of hearing
Nursing Interventions for the hearing Impaired?
- Hearing aid, know how to operate
- Face patient and speak clearly
- Observe facial expressions for feedback
- Speak in good ear if has one
- Allow glasses so they can read lips
- Environment noises kept to a min
- Pad and pencil if message not clear
- Use of multiple medications
- Result of multiple physicians each unaware of what they are prescribing
- Drug interactions and toxicity, which can result in behavioral or cognitive changes
- Rate at which drugs are metabolized and excreted
- Aging kidney significantly less effective in excreting drugs
Nursing Interventions for Polypharmacy
- thorough medical history
- Current prescriptions
- OTC drugs
- any vitamin
- Comprehensive assessment
- Eliminate unnecessary meds
- Reduce the risk of adverse drug reactions
- Reduce complexity of medication regimen