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In what way should teachers introduce phonics elements to students?
- Systematic way, pre-set curriculum.
- 1.Clarify goal & purpose
- 2.Phonemic Awareness warm up
- 3.provide visuals to review pervious learned sound-spelling
- 4.provide direct instruction of sound-spelling
- 5.decodable text
- 6.Apply to other context
- 7. Write the words
Behaviorist Theory - Nurture
There is nothing unique about language learning, ALL human behavior including language, has its basis in physical processes.
Children learn language as parents selectively REWARD or PUNISH only those behaviors which they recognize as appropriate, grammatically correct. - Positive or negative feedback
Reinforcement - Operant conditioning
Any event that strengthens or decreases the behavior.
B.F. Skinner coined what term
According to Operant conditioning - Behaviorst Theory - Children are objects or agents of learning?
Objects - Learners are to whom things are done - we are teaching them vs. them trying to acquire knowledge (agents).
Children are biologically pre-wired to learn language. There is nothing you can do to change it.
Noam Chomsky (1957) - What type of language
Nativist view of language
Noam Chomsky argued....
Language is the product of an unlearned, biologically-based, internal mental structure. We are pre-programmed to learn.
Predetermined - we must be born with the knowledge.
Who developed Cognitive Stage Theory
What are the 4 stages of Jean Piaget's learning theory?
Sensory Moter, Formal Operational, peroperational, concreate operational
Cognitive stage Theory
Is not fundamentally different from other human learning.
Social Interaction theory
Children require interaction with a care-giver to develop language, including intention reading and pattern finding skills.
Language Structure emerges from language use, is what theory?
Interactionist Theories believe that what is needed to learn language
Both social and enviromental
Language development is influenced by a myriad of factors: ___________, ___________, _____________, these factors interact with one another, modify one another, and may produce different effects in different children.
Physical, linguistic, and social
What plays a major role in Social interaction theory?
Unlike behaviorsists who view children as passive, socail interactionsts believe that children are
Like nativists, social interationsists believe language behavior and language learning are...
unique from other behavior and learning
Children come to language acquistion with some innate predisposition to succeed, but the innate ability is of less importance than the social enviroment. Which theory is this?
Social Interaction Theory
Lev Vygotsky believes
Stimuatlion should occur within the zone of proximal development. Scaffolding
Who believes there is an emphasis on the role of the adult in the child's conceptual and linguistic development?
According to Vygotsky, can children learn from their piers?
Language acquisition as being heavily reliance on communicative interaction. Language evolves from its social function, and thus is a social invention.
Bottom Up Theory Characteristics
Hierarchy of subskills, text-based, automaticity = Part to whole = Process that begins with perception and recognition of letters, then phonetic elements, then words, then word groups, sentence meaning and passage meaning.
Bottom up instruction emphasizes
Letters, letter-sound relationships, and words. View accuracty in identifying words as important
Top Down Characteristics
meaning Driven, process that begins with the reader's prior knowledge applied and compared to the material being read - Whole to part - Taught to read for reading.
Combo of Bottom up and top down, readers use the information from one process to help the other. Letters, letter-sound relationship, words, sentences, paragraphs, and text selection,
Whole-language - Goodman & Smith
Instuctional goals focus on intergrated strategy development in phonics and word analysis, comprehension, vocabulary, language, written expression, literature, and study skills.
In whole language children are:
- Immersed in language
- Actively involved (from predicting to discussing)
- Using language and literacy for real-life purposes
- Encouraged to assume responsibility for tehir own learning (Self-selecting books, their time frame)
Sight Word/Look-Day = Dolch
Students should be taught set of sight words - Text to read is based on sight words taught
Linguistic - Bloomfield
- Stress regularities in English, Use of phonograms (phyming patterns) for instruction.
- Dr. Seuss
Language Experience - Van Allen
- What I can think about, I can talk about.
- What I can say, I can write.
- What I can write, I can read.
- I can read what I can write and what other people can write for me to read.
Universal Grammer is what?
An idea of innate, bilogical grammatical categories, such as a noun category and a verb category that facilitate the entire language development in children and overall language processing in adults. - Children know how to combine a noun and a ver into a meaningful correct phrase - A boy eats.
Developmental stages of learning to read
- Awareness and xploration of reading state - Print awareness/pretend reading - PK
- Emergent Reading Stage - Identifying alphabet letters - PK-K
- Early Reading Stage - Beginning Reading - K-1
- Transitional Reading stage - 1-2
- Fluent reading stage - 3 or higher
Give an example of Initial Stage of reading
Picture recognition - Logo
What is the middle stage of reading developement
Phonics Decoding - Students learn that there are systematic ways in which letters and sounds go together.
Final stage of reading development
Orhographic word recognition - automatically be able to visualize a word based on shape and letters.
E.G. Frith (1985)
- Spelling and reading interact.
- Spelling and reading progress through three stages. 1)Logographic 2)Alphabetic 3)Orthographic
- Acquisition of strategies used in one domain drives another
Frith's Logographic Stage
- Lit. dev. begins here
- aquires small sight vocab of written words
- visually based "yellow" look at "ll" then reads "follow" as "yellow" due to "ll" in middle of word
Frith's Alphabetic Stage
- Same as Letter name stage
- Figure point out loud
- Read Aloud and shared reading
- Making a connection between letters and sounds.
Frith's Orthographic Stage
Word recognition occurs by accessing stored internal representations of abstract letter-by-letter.
Dr. Chall Reading Stages
- Stage 0-Pseudo Reading (Preschool)
- Stage 1 - Decoding (Ages 6-7)
- Stage 2 - Confirmation and fluency (Ages 7-8)
- Stage 3 - Reading for Learning the New (Ages 9-13)
- Stage 4 - Multiple Viewpoints (Ages 14-18)
- Stage 5 - Construction & Reconstruction (College)
Fountas & Pinnell - Emergent Stage
- Grade K-1 (Levels A-C, DRA A-3)
- Begin to be aware that print carries a message
- Some sounds and names of alphabet letters
- Directional Movement (Left to Right)
- One to One Correspondence by finger pointing
- Locate some known words
- Picture clues
- Pattern and repetition of text
- Begin high frequency words
- Letter sounds (beginning & ending)
- Respond to text (linking meaning to self)
Fountas & Pinnell - Early Developing Stage
- Grades K-1
- Have good control of early reading
- rely less on pictures
- build a core of high-frequency words
- read familiar text with some phrasing & fluency
- start to attend to puncuation
- Read using more than one source of info
- Begin to monitor own reading/self correct
- Phonetic clues to decode
- Begin discussions about what was read