antibiotics

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blb234
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25699
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antibiotics
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2010-07-05 00:25:47
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antibiotics
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  1. penicillin
    pfizerpen, bicillin LA, veetids

    • gram (+): strep
    • mouth anaerobes
  2. dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin
    penicillinase resistant penicillins

    gram (+): MSSA, strep
  3. amoxicillin, ampicillin
    aminopenicillins

    • gram (+): strep
    • gram (-): h. influenza, e.coli, proteus, salmonella, shigella
  4. amox/clav & amp/sulb
    augmentin & unasyn

    • gram (+): beta lactamase producing MSSA
    • gram (-): h. influenza, m. catarrhalis, e. coli, k. pneumoniae
    • anaerobes
  5. pip/tazo & tic/clav
    zosyn & timentin

    antipseudomonal penicillins

    same as augmentin plus pseudomonos
  6. penicillins adrs
    • NVD
    • hypersensitivity
    • interstitial nephritis
    • hemolytic anemia
  7. first generation cephalosporins
    • cefadroxil
    • cefazolin
    • cephalexin

    • gram (+): staph, strep
    • gram (-): e. coli, p. mirabilis, k. pneumoniae
  8. second generation cephalosporins
    cefaclor, cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefprozil, cefuroxime

    • gram (+): staph, strep
    • gram (-): e. coli, p. mirabilis, k. pneumoniae, acinetobacter, enterobacter, neisseria, serratia, h. influenza
  9. third generation cephalosporins
    cefdinir, cefixime, cefoperazone, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone


    • limited gram (+)
    • gram (-): e. coli, p. mirabilis, k. pneumoniae, acinetobacter,
    • enterobacter, neisseria, serratia, h. influenza plus more
    • -ceftazidime: pseudomonas
  10. fourth generation cephalosporins
    cefepime

    • gram (+) and (-)
    • pseudomonas
  11. cefadroxil
    duricef

    1st gen
  12. cefazolin
    ancef

    1st gen
  13. cephalexin
    keflex

    1st gen
  14. cefaclor
    raniclor

    2nd gen
  15. cefotetan
    2nd gen
  16. cefoxitin
    mefoxin

    2nd gen
  17. cefprozil
    cefzil

    2nd gen
  18. cefuroxime
    • ceftin
    • zinacef

    2nd gen
  19. cefdinir
    omnicef

    3rd gen
  20. cefixime
    suprax

    3rd gen
  21. cefoperazone
    cefobid

    3rd gen
  22. cefpodoxime
    vantin

    3rd gen
  23. cefotaxime
    claforan

    3rd gen
  24. ceftazidime
    • fortaz
    • tazicef

    3rd gen
  25. cefibuten
    cedax

    3rd gen
  26. ceftizoxime
    cefizox

    3rd gen
  27. ceftriaxone
    rocephen

    3rd gen
  28. cefipime
    maxipime

    4th gen
  29. doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem
    carbapenems

    • broad spectrum (+) and (-)
    • all work against pseudomonas except ertapenem

    may cause seizures
  30. doripenem
    doribax
  31. ertapenem
    invanz
  32. imipenem-cilastatin
    primaxin
  33. meropenem
    merrem
  34. aztreonam
    azactam. monobactam

    only effective against gram (-) & pseudomonas
  35. aminoglycocides
    • amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tobramycin
    • amikin, garamycin/gentak, kantrex, neo-fradin, generics, tobi/tobrex

    bacteriocidal concentration dependent killing

    • *gram (-): kleb, p. mirabilis, acinetobacter, serratia, pseudomonas
    • *synergistic with pcn or vanc against gram (+): staph, strep, enterococcus
    • *streptomycin & amikacin: mycobacteria
  36. AG adrs
    nephrotox, ototox
  37. macrolides/ketolides
    • azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, telithromycin
    • zithromax/zmax, biaxin, EES/eryped/erytab/pce/erythrocin

    • gram (+): strep (azith and clarith are better)
    • gram (-)
    • atypicals: chlamydia, legionella, mycoplasma
    • azith & clarith: mycobacteria
  38. macrolides/ketolides adrs
    • NVD
    • QT prolongation
    • phlebitis (erythro IV)
  39. tetracyclines
    • demeclocycline, doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline
    • declomycin, doryx/vibramycin, dynacin/minocin, sumycin

    gram (+), (-), and atypicals
  40. tetracycline adrs
    • NVD
    • photosensitivity
    • phlebitis
    • vertigo (mino)

    discolors teeth of children
  41. tigecycline
    tygacil. its a glycycline.

    gram (+): MSSA, MRSA, VRE

    adrs: NVD, photosensitivity
  42. linezolid
    zyvox. its an oxazolidinone. weak MAOI

    gram (+): VRE, MRSA, resistant strep

    adrs: NVD, HA, myelosuppression, peripheral/optic neuropathy, seizures
  43. quinupristin-dalfopristin
    synercid. its a streptogramin

    VRE, MRSA, MSSA

    adrs: NVD, muscle/joint pain, increases bilirubin
  44. fluoroquinolones
    • ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin
    • cipro/proquin, factive, levaquin, maxaquin, avelox, floxin

    • gram (+), (-), atypicals
    • cipro: pseudomonas
  45. FQ adrs
    not for people <18 YO

    ND, photosensitivity, tendon rupture, BG changes, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, QT prolongation
  46. sulfonamides
    • sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole
    • generics, bactrim/septra, gantrinsin

    • gram (+) including MSSA/MRSA
    • gram (-)
    • sulfadiazine: toxoplasmosis
  47. sulfa adrs
    NVD, rash (SJS), photosensitivity, folate deficiency, hypoglycemia

    not in G6PD deficiency
  48. daptomycin
    cubicin

    gram (+): MSSA, MRSA, VRE

    adrs: ND, muscle pain/weakness
  49. chloramphenicol
    generics

    • gram (+): VRE
    • gram (-)

    adrs: NVD, myelosuppression, gray baby syndrome, optic neuritis
  50. clindamycin
    cleocin, clindesse, evoclin

    gram (+) anaerobes

    adrs: NVD, pseudomebranous colitis
  51. metronidazole
    flagyl, metrogel, noritate, vandazole

    anaerobes

    adrs: ND, confusion, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, metallic taste, DSR
  52. vancomycin
    vancocin

    • gram (+): MSSA, MRSA
    • c. diff

    adrs: red man syndrome, nephrotox, ototox (?)

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