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2014-01-17 19:44:38

Parts of the brain and functions associated with language
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  1. What are the parts of the frontal lobe? (3)

    Where are they located and what are their functions?
    Broca's: inferior frontal portion of LH; Language, motor speech, possibly working memory

    Supplementary motor: Medial surface of frontal lobe; May impact language because of its role in initiation of motor activity

    Prefrontal association cortex: dorsolateral frontal cortex; executive functioning
  2. What are the parts of the temporal lobe? (2)

    Where are they located and what are their functions?
    Wernicke's (auditory association cortex): posterior part of superior and middle temporal gyro; role in language

    Insula (Island of Reil): Retract temporal lobe to see insula; role in language
  3. What are the parts of the parietal lobe? (3)

    Where are they located and what are their functions?
    Supramarginal gyrus: Curves around the posterior end of the lateral Sylvian fissure; Role in language (writing)

    Angular gyrus: directly posterior to the supra marginal gyrus; Role in language (writing)

    Supramarginal plus angular: inferior partial lobule
  4. What are the parts of the occipital lobe? (1)

    Where is it located and what is its function?
    Visual association areas: Complex vision, object perception, important for vision and reading
  5. What are the 2 association fiber tracts?
    Arcuate fasciculus

    Superior longitudinal fasciculus
  6. Where are the major neurologic components of language situated in the area of the dominant hemisphere?

    What structures does this area contain?
    Perisylvian zone/ language zone

    Broca's, Wernicke's, supramarginal gyri, angular gyri, major long association tracts that connect many language centers
  7. Name the structures within the limbic system.

    What are the functions of the limbic system?
    Hypothalamus, anterior & medial nuclei of thalamus, limbic lobe (cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), hippocampus, amygdala, insula, basal forebrain (septal area, pre-optic area, nucleus accumbens, basal nucleus of Meynert)

    Mediates memory, motivation to produce language, feelings, and emotion
  8. What are the 3 parts of the basal ganglia?

    What is the lentiform nucleus made of?
    Caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus (sometimes called claustrum)

    putamen and globus pallidus
  9. Thalamus
    The thalamus plays a role in ___ and ___. Consists of the ____
    (frontal and temporoparietal connections) and ____ (frontal and parietal regions).
    The ___ thalamus affects motor function, but not directly involved in language.
    Posterior language areas project to ___ and ___ ___ nuclei.
    Anterior language area connects with ___ ___ and ___ ___
    • attention, memory
    • pulvinar
    • ventral anterior nucleus
    • ventrolateral
    • pulvinar, lateral posterior 
    • Centrum median, dorsomedial nuclei
  10. Subcortical white matter pathways
    What subcortical pathway is responsible for initiation of language and speech and what structures comprise it? 

    What are the thalamic subcortical connections?

    What connection is between the posterior language cortex and head of caudate?

    What are the subcortical interconnections?

    mesial subcallosal fasciculus (fibers from mesial frontal cortex, SMA and ant.cingulate, to caudate nucleus)

    cortico-thalamic connections, thalamo-cortical connections

    cortico-striatal connections (between post. language cortex and head of caudate)

    striato-pallidal connections, pallido-thalamic connections
  11. Dopaminergic and cholinergic projections
    dopamine projections to the
    ___ ___ from ___ ___ have role in initiation and motivation for speech/language 
    The dopaminergic pathway damage may lead to more ___ profiles
    Anticholinergic drugs negatively affect ___ abilities in healthy subjects and reaction of AD patients when taking cholinergic
    agents (i.e., improve ___ and __ __). What does this suggest?

    Cholinergic involvement may produce ___ profiles
    • Frontal lobe, basal ganglia
    • Nonfluent
    • Language
    • anomia, memory deficits
    • suggest a cholinergic component to some aphasic symptoms, particularly lexical-semantic deficits
    • Fluent
  12. Right cerebellum
    Has major reciprocal connections with ___ and the left ___ via the ____
    There is a hypothesis that the cerebellum is not responsible for linguistic functions directly, but rather has affect on language via ___ phenomenon. Describe this phenomenon.

    Other researchers suggest the cerebellum plays a role in ___, ___, and/or ___ that may lead directly to language problems.
    • Broca's, SMA; thalamus
    • diaschisis
    • reduced input from cerebello-ponto-thalama-cortical pathways
    • Timing, execution, organization
  13. Patient and imaging techniques (PET) suggest that the cerebellum contributes to which language functions? (4)
    What are the deficits in these functions?
    • Word-finding (Lateral cerebellar areas during verbal fluency tasks)
    • Morphosyntax production (grammatical morpheme use, reduced sentence length, possibly simplified syntactic structure)
    • Some reports of morphosyntax comprehension problems 
    • Some reports of transcortical motor aphasia subsequent to right cerebellar stroke
  14. What are the subcortical structures?
    Basal ganglia, lentiform nucleus, thalamus, subcortical white matter pathways, dopaminergic and cholinergic projections