Personality Psych 130

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  1. personality psychology
    study of the person
  2. pyschological triad
    • how people
    • think
    • feel
    • behave
  3. Funder's First Law
    great strengths are also great weaknesses, and often the opposites is true
  4. Funder's Second Law
    There are no perfect indicators of personality, there are only clues, which are often ambiguous
  5. Funder's Third Law
    something beats nothing two out of three times
  6. Four ways to collect data for personality
    • S Data
    • I Data
    • L Data
    • B Data
  7. S Data
  8. I Data
  9. L Data
    life experience
  10. B Data
  11. When doing a study, you want to be...
    • reliable
    • valid
  12. trait approach
    how people differ psychologically describe personality in five traits
  13. big five
    • extraversion
    • conscienciousness
    • openess
    • neuroticism
    • agreeableness
  14. biological approach
    the view of personality that focuses on the way behavior and personality are influenced by neuroanatomy, biochemistry, genetics, and evolution
  15. psychoanalytical approach
    the theoretical view of personality, based on the writings of Sigmund Freud, that emohasizes the unconscious processes of the mind
  16. phenomeral logic
    focus on consious and personal experience as how that creates personality
  17. humanistic psychology
    • the approach to personality that emphasizes aspects of psychology that are distinctly human
    • closely related to the phenomenological approach and existentialism
  18. cross-cultural psychology
    psychological research and theorizing that attempts to account for the psychological differences between and within different cultural groups
  19. learning approach
    in behaviorism, a change in behavior as a result of experience
  20. cognitive approach
    the theoretical view that focuses on the ways in which basic processes of perception and cognition affect personality and behavior
  21. social learning
    learning through observing and self-evaluation
  22. cognitive process
    focus on perception, memory, and thought
  23. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • a widely used test derived through the empirical method
    • originally designed for the diagnosis of psychopathology, it is used today to measure a wide range of personality attributes
  24. Thematic Appreception Test (TAT)
    a projective test that that asks subjects to make up stories about pictures
  25. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    a projective test that asks subjects to interpret blots of ink
  26. projective test
    • a test that presents a participant with an ambiguous stimulus, such as a picture or inkblot, and ask the person to describe what he sees
    • some psychologists believe the answer reveals inner psychological states or motivations of which the participants may be unaware
  27. physiological measure
  28. mood congruency
  29. phenomenology
    • the study of conscious experience
    • often, conscious experience itself is referred between experimental conditions would be expected by chance
  30. research
    exploration of the unknown; finding out something that nobody knew before one discovered it
  31. reliability
    in measurement, the tendency of an instrument to provide the same comparative information on repeated occasions
  32. aggregation
    the combining together of different measurements, such as by averaging them
  33. Spearman-Brown formula
    in psychometrics, a mathematical formula that predicts the degree to which the reliabilty of a test can be improved by adding more items
  34. psychometrics
    the technology of psychological measurement
  35. validity
    the degree to whicha measurement actually reflects what it is intended to measure
  36. construct
    an idea about a psychological attributethat goes beyond what might be assessed through any particular method of assessment
  37. construct validation
    the strategy of establishing the validity of a measure by comparing it with a wide range of other measures
  38. generalizability
    • the degree to which a measurement can be found under diverse circumstances, such as, time, context, participant population, and so on
    • in modern psychometrics, this term includes both reliability and validity
  39. gender bias
  40. cohort effect
    the tendency for a research funding to be limited to one group, or cohort, of people, such as, people all living during a particular era or in a particular location
  41. case study / clinical method
    studying a particular phenomenon or individual in depth bo to understand the particular case and in hopes of discovering general lessons or scientific laws
  42. correlational method
    a research technique that establishes the relationship (not necessarily causal) between two variables, traditionally denoted and y, by measuring both variables in a sample of participants
  43. correlational coefficient
    a number between -1 and +1 that reflects the degree to which one variable, traditionally called y, is a linear function of another, traditionally called x
  44. negative correlation
    as x goes up, goes down
  45. positive correlation
    when x goes up, sp does y
  46. zero correlation
    when both x and y are unrelated
  47. experimental method
    a research technique that eatablishes the causal relationship between an independent variable (x) and dependent variable (y) by randomly assigning participants to experiemental groups characterized by differing levels of x, and measuring the average behavior (y) that results in each group
  48. stages of the scientific method
    • 1) observation
    • 2) define observation
    • 3) hypothesis
    • 4) test
    • 5) conclusion
  49. id
    in paychoanalytic theory, the repositoryf the drives, the emotions, and the primitive, unconscious part of the mind that wants everything now
  50. ego
    in psychoanalytic theory, the relatively rational part of the mind that balances the competing claims of the id, the superego, and reality
  51. superego
    in psychoanalytic theory, the part of the mind that consists of the conscious and individual's system of internalized rules of conduct, or morality
  52. Freud's psychosexual stages of development
    • 1) oral
    • 2) anal
    • 3) phallic
    • 4) latency
    • 5) genital
  53. phallic stage
    in psychoanalytic theory, the stage of psychosexual development from about 4 to 7 years
  54. oral stage
    in psychoanalytic theory, the stage of pyschosexual development, from birth to about 18 months of age, during which the physical focus of the libido is located in the mouth, lips, and tongue
  55. libido
    in psychonalytic theory, the drive toward the creation, nurturing, and enhncement of life (including but not limited to sex), or the energy stemming from this drive; also called psychic energy
  56. latency stage
  57. genital stage
    • in paychoanalytic theory, the final atage of paychosexual development, in which the physical focus of the libido is on the genitals, with an emphasis on heterosexual relationships
    • the stage begins at about puberty, but only fully attained when and if the individual achieves psychological maturity
  58. fixation
    • in psychoanalitic theory, leaving a disproportionate share of one's libido behind at an earlier stage of development
    • unsuccessful resolution
  59. identification
    • in psychoanalytic theory, taking on the values and worldview of another person (e.g. a parent)
    • process by which a child incorporates the parents' values through imitation
  60. defense mechanism
    in psychoanalytic theory, the mechanisms of the ego that serve to protect an individual from experiencing
  61. repression
    in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that banishes the past from current awareness
  62. regression
    in psychoanalytic theory, retreating to an earlier, more immature stage of psychosexual development, usually because of stress but sometimes in the service of play and creativity
  63. reaction formation
    in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that keeps an anxiety producing impulse or thought in check by producting its opposite
  64. projection
    in psychoanalitic theory, the defense mechanism of attributing to somebody else a thought or impulse one fears in oneself
  65. rationalization
    in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that produces a seemingly logical rationale for an impulse or thought that otherwise would cause anxiety
  66. displacement
    in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that redirects an impulse from a dangerous targetto a safe one
  67. sublimination
    in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that turns otherwise dangerous or anxiety-producing impulses toward constructive ends
  68. psychoanalytic approach
    the theoretical view of personality, based on the writings of Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the unconscious processes of the mind
  69. trait
    a relatively stable and long-lasting attribute of personality
  70. humanistic psychology
    • the approach to personality that emphasizes aspects of psychology that are distinctly human
    • closely related to the phenomenological approach and existentialism
  71. self-actualization
    ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved motivation to fulfill one's potential
  72. unconditional positive regard
    attitude of total acceptance toward another person
  73. hierarchy of needs
    • Abram Maslow's priorities of motivations
    • self-actualization
    • esteem
    • belonging
    • safety
    • food and H2O
  74. self-concept
    a person's knowledge and opinions about herself
  75. social cognitive perspective
    view behavior as influenced by the interactions between persons and their social context
  76. reciprocal determination
    interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
  77. personal control
    sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
  78. external locus of control
  79. internal locus of control
  80. learned helplessness
    a belief that nothing one does matters, derived from an experience of random or unpredictable reward and punishment, and theorized to be a basis of depression
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Personality Psych 130
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