Biology Unit 7 Study notes

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Biology Unit 7 Study notes
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  1. Diploid cell formed by union of egg and
    sperm. Diploid cell formed by union of egg and
    sperm.
    ZYGOTE
  2. Small gamete usually propelled by a
    flagellum.
    SPERM/SPERMATOZOA
  3. When one parent produces offspring.
    ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  4. Regrowth of lost body parts.
    REGENERATION
  5. Another scientific name for sexual
    intercourse.
    COPULATION
  6. Large gamete that is not self-propelled
    EGG/OVUM
  7. Breakup of the parent body into several pieces
    FRAGMENTATION
  8. Splitting of new individuals from existing ones
    BUDDING
  9. When sperm and egg unite inside the female’s
    body
    CONCEPTION/INTERNAL FERTILIZATION
  10. Male and female reproductive systems in the same body
    HERMAPHRODITE
  11. Shedding of gametes into water
    EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION
  12. Type of cell division where chromosome number is
    cut in ½.
    MEIOSIS
  13. Name for meiosis in females
    OOGENESIS
  14. Name for meiosis in males
    SPERMATOGENESIS
  15. Male sex chromosomes
    XY
  16. Female sex chromosomes
    XX
  17. The separation of a parent into two or more
    individuals of approximately equal size; one divides into two
    BINARY FISSION
  18. Process in which the 3 tissue layers develop
    into organs
    ORGANOGENESIS
  19. A series of rapid cell divisions that follows
    fertilization
    CLEAVAGE
  20. Food source for the developing animal embryo
    YOLK SAC
  21. Cushions embryo and keeps it moist
    AMNION
  22. Encloses the other 3 membranes; responsible for gas exchange
    CHORION
  23. Hollow ball stage of development
    BLASTULA
  24. Embryonic “garbage bag”; stores wastes
    ALLANTOIS
  25. Fluid-filled cavity
    BLASTOCOEL
  26. Cup-shaped form of the embryo
    GASTRULA
  27. This is the open end of the gastrula that
    develops into the anus
    BLASTOPORE
  28. Outer layer of gastrula develops into skin &
    sensory organs
    ECTODERM
  29. Number of GAMETES produced by female meiosis
    ONE OVUM
  30. The process of drastic rearrangement of cells of the blastula into the gastrula
    GASTRULATION
  31. Middle layer of gastrula develops into skeletal
    & muscle systems
    MESODERM
  32. Male gonad
    TESTIS
  33. Tube that drains excretory & reproductive
    systems in male anatomy
    URETHRA
  34. Number of cells produced by male meiosis
    4
  35. Female gamete
    EGG/OVUM
  36. The largest semen-secreting gland; source of
    most common medical problems in men
    PROSTATE GLAND
  37. Female reproductive site; “birth canal”
    VAGINA
  38. Inner layer of gastrula develops into most
    organs
    ENDODERM
  39. Inner lining of the uterus supplied with blood
    vessels; shed in menstruation
    ENDOMETRIUM
  40. Period in life when sex cells are no longer
    produced
    MENOPAUSE
  41. Another name for period of pregnancy
    GESTATION
  42. Trimester with the most radical changes
    FIRST
  43. Not part of the reproductive system but
    important in mammalian reproduction for lactation
    MAMMARY GLANDS
  44. If pregnancy does NOT occur, the endometruium lining is shed from the uterus through the cervix and vagina in bleeding
    MENSTRUATION
  45. The most fertile time of a woman’s cycle is the
    MIDDLE
  46. The sac outside of the body that holds the male testicles is called the
    SCROTUM
  47. Secretes estrogen and progesterone in females
    CORPUS LUTEUM
  48. Twins that come from a single fertilized egg but do not separate
    CONJOINED
  49. 3 stages of childbirth
    DILATION, EXPULSION, PLACENTAL
  50. The process of the fertilized egg or embryo embedding itself into the endometrium lining of the uterus
    IMPLANTATION
  51. What we call the embryo starting at weeks 8-10 until birth
    FETUS
  52. Trimester in which mass is tripled
    THIRD
  53. 3 things mom’s body passes to baby’s
    FOOD, VITAMINS, OXYGEN
  54. Jaundice or yellow color of baby’s skin indicates this
    LIVER PROBLEMS
  55. Average length of labor
    10-16 HOURS
  56. The work of the mother pushing the baby is called
    LABOR
  57. When the baby is born buttocks first
    BREECH BIRTH
  58. Labor may be induced or forced by hormones called
    OXYTOCINS
  59. When delivery of the baby is made through the wall of the abdomen, it is a
    C-SECTION
  60. What natural process speeds up the reduction in size of the uterus
    BREAST FEEDING
  61. Classes on breathing and relaxation techniques
    LAMAZE
  62. Disk-shaped organ that contains embryonic and maternal blood vessels
    PLACENTA
  63. Membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening in humans
    HYMEN
  64. Gestation period in humans
    ~266 DAYS
  65. Male organ responsible for depositing sperm into the female
    PENIS
  66. Funnel-like opening that contains cilia to help move or collect the egg
    OVIDUCTS/FALLOPIAN TUBES
  67. One advantage to asexual reproduction
    SIMPLE, FAST, LOTS OF OFFSPRING/PROMOTES CONTINUITY (SAMENESS).
  68. One advantage to sexual reproduction
    GENETIC DIVERSITY
  69. Process in which the gastrula elongates into the neural tube
    NEURULATION
  70. The neural tube becomes the
    BRAIN & SPINAL CORD
  71. Name for the reproductive cells/sex cells that have the haploid chromosome number
    Gametes
  72. Name for the 3 smaller cells produced in oogenesis that dissolve or die
    POLAR BODIES
  73. Autosomes are these chromosomes
    1ST 22 PAIRS HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH GENDER/SEX DETERMINATION
  74. Fetus that is presented head first, face down
    CEPHALIC BIRTH
  75. Twins from 2 different fertilized eggs
    FRATERNAL
  76. 2 things baby gives/sends back to mom
    WASTES & CARBON DIOXIDE
  77. Study of development
    EMBRYOLOGY
  78. What is a karyotype
    PICTURE OF CHROMOSOMES LINED UP IN PAIRS FROM LONGEST TO SHORTEST
  79. The diploid number of chromosomes in a normal human somatic cell
    46
  80. The haploid number of chromosomes in a normal human gamete
    23
  81. Diploid abbreviation
    2n
  82. Haploid abbreviation
    n
  83. Having 3 chromosomes at number 21 is called
    TRISOMY 21 or DOWN’S SYNDROME
  84. Many sets of chromosomes that can lead to a new species are termed
    POLYPLOIDY
  85. 4 types of chromosomal alterations
    DELETION, DUPLICATION, INVERSION, TRANSLOCATION
  86. Crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization lead to this
    GENETIC VARIATION
  87. Tetrad
    4n; 4 SETS OF CHROMOSOMES
  88. Time in our lives that meiosis occurs
    PUBERTY to MENOPAUSE
  89. Number of cell divisions in meiosis.  Names for the cell divisions
    2; MEIOSIS I & MEIOSIS II
  90. Phases of meiosis in order
    PROPHASE I, METAPHASE I, ANAPHASE I, TELOPHASE I & CYTOKINESIS, PROPHASE II, METAPHASE II, ANAPHASE II, TELOPHASE II & CYTOKINESIS
  91. Name for the chromosome disorder where males have an extra X chromosome
    KLINEFELTER’S SYNDROME
  92. Name for chromosome disorder where females are missing an X chromosome
    TURNER’S SYNDROME
  93. Pathway of sperm through male
    TESTES, EPIDIDYMIS, VAS DEFERENS, URETHRA
  94. Semen is the mixture of sperm and fluids secreted from these 3 glands
    SEMINAL VESICLES, PROSTATE GLAND, BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
  95. Average length of female ovarian & menstrual cycles
    ~28 DAYS
  96. 3 parts of sperm cell & their functions
    HEAD, MIDPIECE, TAIL; ENZYMES TO PENETRATE EGG, MITOCHONDRIA FOR ENERGY, & FLAGELLA FOR MOVEMENT
  97. Path of egg in female
    PRODUCED IN FOLLICLES OF OVARY, RELEASED IN OVULATION INTO OVIDUCTS/FALLOPIAN TUBES, IMPLANTATION IN WALL OF UTERUS, CERVIX, VAGINA
  98. The name for 2 chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic information
    Homologous Chromosomes
  99. Name for the body cells in a human that have the diploid chromosome number
    SOMATIC
  100. Name for the reproductive organs that produce the gametes or sex cells
    GONADS
  101. 3 steps to the Ovarian cycle
    FOLLICULAR PHASE, OVULATION, LUTEAL PHASE
  102. 3 keys to genetic diversity
    CROSSING OVER, INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT, RANDOM FERTILIZATION
  103. This procedure removes the foreskin/prepuce on the penis; usually done shortly after birth on baby boys
    CIRCUMCISION
  104. The part of the female anatomy that has to dilate to 10 cm to give birth
    CERVIX

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