Chapter 1: An Orientation

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tad.ramage
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Chapter 1: An Orientation
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2014-01-28 00:57:12
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definitions anatomy physiology science
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Human Anatomy and Physiology 9th edition
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bold and italicized words from the text book
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  1. Anatomy
    Studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
  2. Physiology
    concerns the function of the body; how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities
  3. Gross;Macroscopic Anatomy
    study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys
  4. Regional Anatomy
    All the structures in a particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time
  5. Systemic Anatomy
    body structure is divided system by system - when studying the cardiovascular system, you would examine the heart and the blood vessels of the entire body
  6. Surface Anatomy
    study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
  7. Microscopic Anatomy
    deal with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
  8. Cytology
    subdivision of microscopic anatomy which considers the cells of the body
  9. Histology
    subdivision of microscopic anatomy which considers the tissue
  10. Developmental Anatomy
    traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
  11. Embryology
    a subdivision of developmental anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
  12. Pathological Anatomy
    studies structural changes caused by disease
  13. Radiographic Anatomy
    studies internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures
  14. Molecular biology
    structure of biological molecules is investigated
  15. Palpation
    feeling organs with your hands
  16. Auscultation
    listening to organ sounds with a stethoscope
  17. Renal Physiology
    concerns kidney function and urine production
  18. Neurophysiology
    explains the workings of the nervous system
  19. Cardiovascular physiology
    examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
  20. Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function
    what a structure can do depends on its specific form
  21. Levels of Structural Organization
    • Chemical Level
    • Cellular Level
    • Tissue Level
    • Organ Level
    • Organ System Level
    • Organismal Level
  22. Every living organism must "maintain its boundaries"
    so that its internal environment remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it
  23. Movement
    • activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another by running or swimming, and manipulating the external environment with our nimble fingers
    • also when substances such as blood, foodstuffs, and urine are propelled through internal organs of the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems
  24. Contractility
    the muscle cell's ability to move by shortening
  25. Responsiveness; Excitability
    the ability to sense changes in the environment and then respond to them
  26. Digestion
    the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood
  27. Metabolism - "a state of change"
    a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells
  28. Catabolism
    breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks
  29. Anabolism
    synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
  30. Cellular Respiration
    using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP
  31. ATP
    energy-rich molecules that power cellular activities
  32. Excretion
    process of moving wastes, or excreta, from the body
  33. Reproduction (of cells)
    the original cell divides, producing two identical daughter cells that may then be used for body growth or repair
  34. Reproduction (of the human organism)
    making a whole new person - the major task of the reproductive system
  35. Growth
    an increase in size of a body part or the organism as a whole
  36. Nutrients
    taken in via the diet, contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building
  37. Importance of "Oxygen"
    chemical reactions that release energy from foods are oxidative reactions that require oxygen
  38. Water
    60-80% of our body weight - provides the watery environment necessary for chemical reactions and the fluid base for body secretions and excretions
  39. Normal Body Temperature
    • 98.6°F or 37°C
    • As body temperature drops below normal body temp., metabolic reactions become slower and slower, and finally stop
    • When body temp. is too high, chemical reactions occur at a frantic pace and body proteins lose their characteristic shape and stop functioning
  40. Atmospheric Pressure
    the force that air exerts on the surface of the body - breathing and gas exchange in the lungs depends on appropriate atmospheric pressure
  41. Homeostasis - "wisdom of the body"
    body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously
  42. Variable
    factor or event being regulated
  43. Components of Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
    • Receptor
    • Control Center
    • Effector
  44. Receptor
    first component, some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes, called stimuli, by sending information to the second component, control center
  45. Afferent pathway
    pathway where input flows from the receptor to the the control center
  46. Control Center
    determines the set point, which is the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained - also analyzes the input it receives and determines the appropriate response or course of action
  47. Efferent Pathway
    information flows from the control center, down this pathway to the effector
  48. Effector
    provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus
  49. Negative Feedback Mechanisms
    the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity - these mechanisms cause the variable to change in a direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning to its "ideal" value
  50. Positive Feedback Mechanisms
    the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated - the change that results proceeds in the same direction as the initial change, causing the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range
  51. Cascades
    positive feedback mechanisms - from the Italian word meaning "to fall"
  52. Homeostatic Imbalance
    most disease is a result of a disturbance of homeostasis - as we age, our body's control systems become less efficient, and our internal environment becomes less and less stable
  53. Anatomical Position
    the body is erect with feet slightly apart - "standing at attention" with palms facing forward and thumbs away from the body - most directional terms used refer to the body as if it were in this position, regardless of its actual position
  54. Directional Terms
    allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another
  55. Axial part of the body
    makes up the main axis of our body - includes the head, neck, and trunk
  56. Appendicular part of the body
    consists of appendages or limbs
  57. Regional terms
    used to designate specific areas within major body divisions
  58. Superior (cranial)
    toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
  59. Inferior (caudal)
    Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
  60. Ventral (anterior)
    toward or at the front of the body; in front of
  61. Dorsal (posterior)
    toward or at the back of the body; behind
  62. Medial
    toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
  63. Lateral
    away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
  64. Intermediate
    Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
  65. Proximal
    closer to the origin of the body part of closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
  66. Distal
    Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
  67. Superficial (external)
    toward or at the body surface
  68. Deep (internal)
    away from the body surface; more internal
  69. Sagittal Plane - "arrow"
    vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
  70. Median Plane; Midsagittal Plane
    sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
  71. Parasagittal Planes
    sagittal planes offset from the midline - para=near
  72. Frontal Planes; Coronal Plane
    vertical plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
  73. Transverse Plane; Horizontal Plane
    runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
  74. Cross Section
    a transverse section
  75. Oblique Sections
    cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes - because oblique sections are often confusing and difficult to interpret, they are seldom used
  76. Dorsal Body Cavity
    protects the fragile nervous system organs
  77. Cranial Cavity
    dorsal body cavity in the skull, encases the brain
  78. Vertebral Cavity; Spinal Cavity
    dorsal body cavity which runs within the bony vertebral column, encloses the delicate spinal cord
  79. Ventral Body Cavity
    the more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities
  80. Viscera
    collective internal organs housed in the ventral body cavity
  81. Thoracic Cavity
    superior subdivision of the ventral body cavity that is surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest
  82. Pleural Cavities
    Further subdivision of the thoracic cavity
  83. Mediastinum
    contained in the pleural cavities - contains the pericardial cavity
  84. Pericardial cavity
    encloses the heart, and it also surrounds the remaining thoracic organs, such as the esophagus
  85. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    inferior ventral body cavity, separated by the diaphragm from the thoracic cavity
  86. Abdominal Cavity
    superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity, contains the stomach, intestines, pleen, liver, and other organs
  87. Pelvic Cavity
    inferior part of the abdominopelvis cavity, lies in the bony pelvis and contains the urinary bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum
  88. Serosa; Serous Membrane
    thin, double-layered membrane that covers the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains
  89. Parietal Serosa
    part of the membrane lining the cavity walls
  90. Visceral Serosa
    serous membrane folds in on itself, covering the organs in the cavity
  91. Serous Fluid
    thin layer of lubricating fluid that separates the serous membranes, andis secreted by both serous membranes
  92. Parietal Pericardium
    lines the cardial cavity
  93. Visceral Pericardium
    covers the heart
  94. Parietal Pleurae
    line the walls of the thoracic cavity
  95. Visceral Pleurae
    cover the lungs
  96. Parietal Peritoneum
    associated with the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
  97. Visceral Peritoneum
    covers most of the organs within the abdominopelvic cavity
  98. Pleurisy
    inflammation of the pleurae
  99. Peritonitis
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  100. The Four Abdominopelvic  Quadrants
    • quadrants resulting from the abdominopelvic cavity being divided by transverse and median planes through the umbilicus
    • RUQ-LUQ-RLQ-LLQ
  101. Nine Abdominopelvic Regions
    • Umbilical Region: centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus
    • Epigastric Region: located superior the umbilical region 
    • Hypogastric Region: located inferior to the umbilical region
    • R&L Iliac; Inguinal Regions: located lateral to the hypogastric region
    • R&L Lumbar Regions: lie lateral to the umbilical region
    • R&L Hypochondriac: lie lateral to the epigastric region and deep to the ribs
  102. Oral and Digestive Cavities
    commonly called the mouth, contains the teeth and tongue. This cavity is part of and continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs, which opens to the body exterior at the anus
  103. Nasal Cavity
    Located within and posterior to the nose, part of the respiratory system passageways
  104. Orbital Cavities (orbits)
    in the skull, house the eyes and present them in an anterior position
  105. Middle Ear Cavities
    in the skull, lie just medial to the eardrums - contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations in the inner ears
  106. Synovial Cavities
    joint cavities - they are enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely movable joints of the body (such as the elbow and knee joints) - lined by membranes that secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction as the bones move across one another

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