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What is SWA policy about flying into known light, moderate, and severe icing conditions?
Aircraft will not be dispatched or flown into known or probable severe icing conditions.
Flights may continue into light to moderate icing conditions only if all deicing equipment for the aircraft is operable.
What is SWA policy if an aircraft flies through hail?
If hail (GR in a METAR) strikes an aircraft, a conditional hail inspection must be performed by Maintenance. If frozen precipitation (GS in a METAR) strikes an aircraft, a conditional inspection is not required.
What is SWA policy concerning a mountain wave transit route?
Pilots must remain on a filed mountain wave transit route. Coordinate any desired changes with Dispatch.
What is the SWA Seatbelt Policy concerning turbulence?
Passengers and Flight Attendants shall be seated when moderate or greater turbulence is anticipated or encountered.
What is SMGCS and when does it apply?
Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) refers to equipment installations and control procedures at U.S. airports conducting operations when visibility is less than 1200 RVR.
There may be different requirements for operations between 1200 RVR and 600 RVR and operations below 600 RVR.
How is a Start/Ready Box or a Termination/Stop Box presented?
A pink rectangle with a white border and black outline.
How is a Clearance Bar or a Clearance Line presented?
Three in-pavement yellow lights that are perpendicular to the direction of taxi and co-located with a pink spot.
A yellow dashed line perpendicular to the direction of taxi, co-located with a pink spot.
Normally, the order of appearance is clearance bar, clearance line, and hold point/pink spot.
What are Wig-Wag Lights?
- Elevated yellow lights installed outboard of the taxiway holding position lights. Wig-wags remain illuminated when red stop bars are
What is Stop Bar Lighting and what is the most important limitation associated with them?
- Red in-pavement lights and elevated red lights on both sides of thetaxiway at the point where the taxiway leads to the takeoff position on the runway. The stop bar is co-located with the ILS critical area hold
- short markings. Stop bar lights are controlled by ATC.
cross a red illuminated stop bar, regardless of visibility or SMGCS status, even if an ATC clearance has been given to proceed onto or across the runway.
What are Lead-On Lights?
A segment of green centerline lights from the stop bar to the runway centerline. These lights are illuminated when the stop bar is off. When the lead-on lights illuminate, the stop bars go off, confirming the ATC verbal clearance to taxi onto the runway.
If, after crossing a stop bar, the taxiway centerline lead-on lights inadvertently extinguish, Pilots should hold their position and contact ATC for further instructions.
What is The Clean Aircraft Concept?
No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the wings (to include winglets), control surfaces, engine inlets, or other critical surfaces of the aircraft. Takeoffs with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel tanks may be authorized by the Administrator.
The only other exception to the clean aircraft concept is thin hoarfrost on the fuselage provided all vents and ports are clear.
Who has the ultimate responsibility to determine if the aircraft is clean and in a condition for safe flight.
What is Holdover time? When does it begin?
Holdover time (HOT) is the estimated time anti-icing fluid prevents the formation of frost or ice and the accumulation of snow or slush on the protected surfaces of an aircraft.
Holdover time begins when the final application of deicing/anti-icing fluid commences (start time) and expires when the deicing/anti-icing fluid applied to the aircraft loses its effectiveness.
What is Allowance Time/when is it used? Can it be extended by an Icing check? When does it begin?
It used for ice pellets.
Allowance time is the established time Type IV anti-icing fluid can accumulate any intensity/mixture of ice pellets, and be able to flow off the aerodynamic surfaces during takeoff.
Allowance time cannot be extended by an internal or external Icing Check.
Allowance time begins at the start of the final Type IV fluid application and varies with weather conditions.
When are icing conditions defined to exist on the ground and in flight?
GROUND: OAT <= 10°C
with visible moisture present, and/or operating on ramps, taxiways, or runways where surface snow, ice, standing water, or slush, are present and may be ingested by the engines.
- IN FLIGHT: TAT <= 10°C and visible
- moisture is present.
NOTE: Visible moisture includes visibility of less than 1 mile
Who has the final authority in determining if the aircraft requires deicing?
In normal line operations, who conducts the Clean Aircraft Check?
In normal line operations, the Captain designates the Iceman to perform the Clean Aircraft Check.
If anti-icing fluid is applied to an originating aircraft prior to flight crew arrival, what must be accomplished?
Anti-icing fluid applied prior to Flight Deck Crew arrival must be removed prior to departure.
If anti-icing fluid is applied to an originating aircraft prior to flight crew arrival, how is the holdover time calculated?
There is no holdover time when the aircraft is deiced/anti-iced prior to Flight Deck Crew arrival.
A new fluid application must be accomplished if a holdover time is required for departure.
When operating in very cold conditions, how long should you wait to start the APU after connecting ground power and why?
To charge the battery/batteries.
What is the concern for the pitot and static ports after during snow and ice removal?
During snow and ice removal, melted snow may refreeze and cause an ice buildup in front of static ports. This can disturb the airflow over the static ports and cause erroneous static readings, even though the actual static ports are unobstructed.
What is Cold-Soaked Fuel Frost, when does it apply, and when should it be checked for?
Ice or frost may form on the wing surface when fuel tank temperature is less than 5°C due to cold-soaked fuel.
It is most likely to be created when the aircraft is exposed to high humidity, rain, drizzle, or fog at ambient temperatures well above freezing.
The wings should be checked for ice 10-15 minutes after gate arrival.
How much and where is CSFF allowed?
CSFF up to ⅛ inch on the lower wing is permissible.
Under what conditions is CSFF not allowed?
The Clean Aircraft Concept does not allow takeoff with any CSFF on the upper wing surface.
When is Southwest Airlines not authorized to exceed HOT by the use of a Cabin Check?
Anti-icing with Type I fluid during conditions of FZDZ or -FZRA).
When is the Snowfall Intensities Table used?
If snowfall is being reported and it is the only reported precipitation and visibility is not being reduced by other forms of obscuration (e.g., fog [FG], mist [BR]).
When must the aircraft be deiced with Type IV fluid?
When heavy snow (+SN) is reported or derived from the Snowfall Intensities as a Function of Prevailing Visibility Table.
What conditions allow takeoff in heavy snow?
The aircraft is anti-iced with undiluted Type IV fluid.
The Cabin Check is performed and the critical aircraft surfaces are verified clean.
Takeoff is accomplished within five minutes of the Cabin Check.
What are the requirements for using the Ice Pellet Allowance Time Chart?
The ice pellet intensity, mixture of precipitation and intensity, and temperature must be listed in the chart. If it is not, allowance time cannot be used and takeoff is not authorized.
Allowance time cannot be extended by a Cabin Check.
If takeoff is not accomplished within the applicable allowance time, the aircraft must be completely deiced, and if frozen precipitation is still present, anti-iced again prior to takeoff.
If the aircraft was deiced/anti-iced due to ice pellets: what needs to happen if the weather conditions change? What if the precipitation stops?
Consult the chart. If the new condition results in a more restrictive allowance time, this new allowance time must be applied to the original start time. If the new condition is not listed in the chart, takeoff is not permitted.
If precipitation stops at or before the time limit of the applicable allowance time and does not restart, takeoff may be accomplished up to 90 minutes after the start of the allowance time.
When are pilots are authorized to perform precipitation assessments?
The current weather report is reporting precipitation which is not being observed from the flight deck.
Adequate lighting and visual cues are available to perform an accurate assessment.
The FAA allows what visual techniques to assess the absence of precipitation?
No form of precipitation is visible on unheated aircraft surfaces (e.g., windshield wiper mechanism, radome) or other unheated surfaces (e.g., luggage, ramp vehicles, other structures).
At night, look at lighted backgrounds to ensure no precipitation is falling.
What is the approved Pilot Precipitation Assessments Procedure?
When an assessment is made indicating that no precipitation is present, request a new weather observation.
If departure is imminent and a new weather observation is not issued confirming no precipitation, accomplish the following: 1) Send a message to Dispatch through ACARS stating “No Precipitation.” and 2)Confirm the aircraft is free of precipitation by performing a Flight Deck Check.
What is the freeze point requirement for using Type I fluid?
The freeze point is provided by the Iceman in °F and must be at least 10°C/18°F below the OAT.
What methods are used for CSFF removal?
Type I deice: either a conventional deice truck or Hot Shot.
Add warmer fuel
How can an aircraft be deiced at SWA? Can warm water be used?
Type I fluid, warm/heated air, radiant heating, forced air, forced air/fluid.
What method is used to clear areas such as pitot tubes, static ports, Total Air Temperature (TAT) probes, and engine inlets, fan blades and spinner?
Can the engines be running and is there communications with the operators for Hot Shot deicing?
NO and NO
If the flaps were left at position 15 due to flap contamination, when are they repositioned to takeoff flaps setting?
After contamination removal and deicing/anti-icing are complete.
If the flaps were left at position 15 due to flap contamination, can the engines be running for flap contamination removal?
WARNING: The engines must be shut down to allow underwing access to remove contamination from the flaps.
After deice/anti-icing, how long must you wait until turning on the engine and APU bleed switches?
Allowing one minute for deice fluid and fume dissipation.
What are indications of blocked static ports?
Erroneous or unusual altitude and/or airspeed indications may indicate blocked static ports. Do not continue operations unless all altitude and airspeed indications are normal.
For cold weather engine starts, under what conditions should you shut an engine down for erroneous oil pressure readings?
No oil pressure indication at idle RPM requires immediate engine shutdown.
Allow 10-15 minutes for internal heat to warm the oil system. Hot air may be applied adjacent to the gearbox and oil tank prior to the next start.
What kind of erroneous oil pressure readings can occur during cold weather engine starts?
Initial oil pressure may rise slowly, slow oil pressure response is common.
The LOW OIL PRESSURE light may remain illuminated.
The oil pressure may go above the normal range, may temporarily exceed maximum pressure limits.
Oil pressure may not indicate any increase until the oil temperature rises.
The OIL FILTER BYPASS light may illuminate (The OIL FILTER BYPASS light should extinguish as the oil warms and the pressure returns to normal.)
The engine should be operated at idle thrust until oil pressure returns to the normal range.
No minimum oil temperature is specified for takeoff.
When starting engines during cold weather, how long can you wait to allow the oil pressure readings to return to normal?
- As long as there is some indication of oil pressure, up to 3.5 minutes may be allowed for oil pressure to reach the minimum
- operating pressure.
When can you select wing or engine anti-ice switches after engine start?
Do not select engine or wing anti-ice until rollback of the second engine.
During flight, when is engine anti-ice required?
When icing conditions exist or are anticipated, except during climb and cruise when the temperature is below -40°C SAT.
When is wing anti-ice not allowed on the ground?
- Do not use the wing anti-ice system on the ground after anti-icing with Type IV fluid; this degrades the anti-icing properties of the
During periods of prolonged ground operations, when may an engine run-up be required? How is it accomplished?
When engine anti-icing is required and the OAT is 3°C or below.
Run-up to a minimum of 70 percent N1 for approximately a 30-second duration at intervals no greater than 30 minutes.
On the ground, during moderate icing conditions (i.e., freezing rain, freezing drizzle, freezing fog, heavy snow), what must be accomplished?
An engine run-up.
Run-ups to a minimum of 70 percent N1 for approximately a one-second duration at intervals no greater than 10 minutes.
What is an Icing Check and when does it have to be performed?
This check verifies that the critical aircraft surfaces are free of contamination and the fluid has not failed.
An Icing Check of the aircraft must be performed when any form of freezing or frozen precipitation is present between the time the aircraft has been deiced/anti-iced and the initiation of the takeoff roll.
Where are Icing Checks performed from?
The Icing Check is performed from either the flight deck or cabin, depending on whether the established holdover time has been exceeded.
What is a Flight Deck Check and when is it performed?
An Icing Check performed within the Holdover Time or Allowance Time.
The Flight Deck Crew must inspect the representative aircraft surfaces from the flight deck.
What is a Cabin Check and when is it performed?
An Icing Check performed when Holdover Time is Exceeded or during Heavy Snow.
A Flight Deck Crew Member operating the flight must inspect both aircraft wing surfaces from the cabin overwing windows within five minutes of takeoff.
During cold weather conditions, when must a max takeoff thrust be accomplished?
When the runway is contaminated with clutter.
When moderate icing conditions are present, what are the takeoff considerations?
- Takeoff must be preceded by a static engine run-up (70 %N1 recommended), and stable engine operation must be observed prior to
- brake release.
If runway has clutter, the acceleration rate
during the low speed portion of the takeoff roll will be close to normal but may deteriorate during the high speed takeoff roll.
The lower fuselage, retractable landing lights
should be kept retracted.
- Consider cycling landing gear once after a stable climb.
Enroute, what kind of icing conditions should be avoided?
Avoid continued operation in moderate to severe icing conditions.
What is recommended in moderate or severe icing conditions during low N1 setting (decent or holding)?
If descending or holding in moderate to severe icing conditions with thrust settings below 80 percent N1, accomplish an engine run-up on one engine at a time to a minimum of 80 percent N1, at approximately 15-minute intervals, to clear ice from the fan blades and spinner.
After landing if icing conditions were present during the approach with the flaps extended or the landing is made on a contaminated runway, what should be considered?
Do not retract the flaps to less than 15
Under what conditions is takeoff prohibited when ice pellets are present (assuming allowance time is OK)?
Takeoff is not authorized if the temperature is less than -10°C and VR is less than 115 kt when ice pellets are present. A different flap setting or additional weight (fuel) may be necessary.
If extremely heavy precipitation is inadvertently encountered, what are the considerations?
Maintain the required turbulent air penetration airspeed.
Place the ignition switches to FLT.
If thrust changes are necessary, move the thrust levers very slowly, otherwise don't make thrust changes.
Rapid thrust lever movements during flight in extremely heavy precipitation may cause engine stall and damage.
Avoid changing thrust lever direction until engines have stabilized at a selected setting.
What must be accomplished in severe turbulence?
Autothrottle - Disengage
Thrust - Set (280kts/0.76 or 0.73M, 250 kt below 15,000 ft). Adjust only if necessary.
Autopilot - CWS Mode (do not use Altitude Hold)
Engine Start Switches - FLT
Yaw Damper - Ensure ON
Generally speaking, what does PWS indicate on takeoff?
The Predictive Windshear System (PWS) provides windshear alerts, cautions, and warnings when windshear conditions are detected below 1,200 ft along and ahead of the aircraft flight path.
During the Precautionary Takeoff Profile, when should rotations occur?
Use the increased (windshear) VR speed.
If windshear is encountered at or beyond the actual (nonwindshear) VR, do not attempt to accelerate to the increased VR; rotate without hesitation. In no case should rotation be delayed with less than 2,000 ft of usable runway remaining.
What flap setting is recommended if windshear is suspected on approach?
Flaps 30 is able.