Anatomy Chapter 1
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Study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
Study of how the body works and carry out their life sustaining activities
Gross (macroscopic) Anatomy
The study of large body structures. ex. heart, lungs, kidneys
Anatomy Greek definition
"To cut apart"
Three aproaches of gross anatomy
Regional, systemic, surface
Scope (Macroscopic) Definition
"to look at"
All the strutures in a particular region of the body. ex. leg, abdomen
Body structure is studied system by system. ex digestive, muscular
The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface. ex. what lies beneath
Study of structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
Branches of microscopic anatomy
Study of the cells of the body.
Study of tissues
Traces structural changes that occur in the body troughout the life span.
A subdivision of developmntal anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth.
Study of structural changes caused by disease.
Study of internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures.
Study of the structure of biological molecules. sub-cellular (chemical substances)
Concerned with kidney function and urine production
Study of the workings of the nervous system
Examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
Principle of complementarity of structure and function.
- Anatomy and Physiology inseparable - Evolved together.
- Structure dictates function.
- Function constrains structure.
What is life
Isolated self-replicating chemical reactions subject to change over time.
Atoms react to form molecules.
- Basic components of microscopic cells.
- Molecules react to form organelles.
- "little tiny organs"
- Assist in cellular function.
- Force of air on body
- High altitudes = decreasing pressure = thin air = less O2 exchange
- Smallest living unit
- Chemical reactions isolated - first cell
- Vary in size, shape and function
Groups of similar cells that have a common function.
Covers the body surface and lines its cavities.
What does muscle do?
Provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
A discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is more common) that performs a specific function for the body.
- Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
- Protects inner organs from drying, pathogens, temperature, UV, radiation and toxins.
- Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture, and produces heat.
- Brain and spinal cord
- As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
- Heart, blood vessels
- Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.
Lymphatic System / Immunity
- spleen, white blood cells
- Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
- Keeps the blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.The gaseous exchanges occur though the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
- stomach, intestines
- Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells, indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
- Bladder, kidney
- Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Maintain internal conditions in the same state.
Chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
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