Anatomy Chapter 1

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tostm01
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257250
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Anatomy Chapter 1
Updated:
2014-01-18 23:16:23
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anatomy
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Anatomy Book
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Notes from chapter 1
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  1. Anatomy
    Study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
  2. Physiology
    Study of how the body works and carry out their life sustaining activities
  3. Gross Anatomy
    Macroscopic Anatomy
  4. Gross (macroscopic) Anatomy
    The study of large body structures. ex. heart, lungs, kidneys
  5. Anatomy Greek definition
    "To cut apart"
  6. Three aproaches of gross anatomy
    Regional, systemic, surface
  7. Scope (Macroscopic) Definition
    "to look at"
  8. Macro
    Large
  9. Regional Anatomy
    All the strutures in a particular region of the body. ex. leg, abdomen
  10. Systemic anatomy
    Body structure is studied system by system. ex digestive, muscular
  11. Surface anatomy
    The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface. ex. what lies beneath
  12. Microscopic Anatomy
    Study of structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
  13. Branches of microscopic anatomy
    • cytology
    • histology
  14. Cytology
    Study of the cells of the body.
  15. Histology
    Study of tissues
  16. Developmental Anatomy
    Traces structural changes that occur in the body troughout the life span.
  17. Embryology
    A subdivision of developmntal anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth.
  18. Pathological Anatomy
    Study of structural changes caused by disease.
  19. Radiographic anatomy
    Study of internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures.
  20. Molecular biology
    Study of the structure of biological molecules. sub-cellular (chemical substances)
  21. Phys
    natural (workings)
  22. Renal physiology
    Concerned with kidney function and urine production
  23. Neurophysiology
    Study of the workings of the nervous system
  24. Cardiovascular physiology
    Examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
  25. Principle of complementarity of structure and function.
    • Anatomy and Physiology inseparable - Evolved together.
    • Structure dictates function.
    • Function constrains structure.
  26. What is life
    Isolated self-replicating chemical reactions subject to change over time.
  27. Molecules
    Atoms react to form molecules.
  28. Organelles
    • Basic components of microscopic cells.
    • Molecules react to form organelles.
    • "little tiny organs"
    • Assist in cellular function.
  29. Oxidation
    Release energy
  30. Body Temperature
    37°C 98.6°F
  31. Atmospheric Pressure
    • Force of air on body
    • High altitudes = decreasing pressure = thin air = less O2 exchange
  32. Cell
    • Smallest living unit
    • Chemical reactions isolated - first cell
    • Vary in size, shape and function
  33. Tissue
    Groups of similar cells that have a common function.
  34. Epithelium
    Covers the body surface and lines its cavities.
  35. What does muscle do?
    Provides movement.
  36. Nervous tissue
    Provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
  37. Organ
    A discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is more common) that performs a specific function for the body.
  38. Integumentary system
    • Skin
    • Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury.  Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
    • Protects inner organs from drying, pathogens, temperature, UV, radiation and toxins.
  39. Skeletal System
    • bone
    • Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.  Blood cells are formed within bones.  Bones store minerals.
  40. Muscular System
    Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression.  Maintains posture, and produces heat.
  41. Nervous system
    • Brain and spinal cord
    • As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
  42. Endocrine system
    Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
  43. Cardiovascular system
    • Heart, blood vessels
    • Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.  The heart pumps blood.
  44. Lymphatic System / Immunity
    • spleen, white blood cells
    • Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood.  Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream.  Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity.  The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
  45. Respiratory System
    • Lungs
    • Keeps the blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.The gaseous exchanges occur though the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
  46. Digestive System
    • stomach, intestines
    • Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells, indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
  47. Urinary System
    • Bladder, kidney
    • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body.  Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
  48. Reproductive System
    Reproduction
  49. Homeostasis
    Maintain internal conditions in the same state.
  50. Metabolism
    Chemical reactions that occur within body cells.

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