Psychology Midterm

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mlucas53
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Psychology Midterm
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2010-07-06 00:25:35
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Psychology Midterm
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Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11
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  1. When Kate entered her introductory psychology course, she assumed that all of psychology focused on therapy and helping others. She might have been under that impression because.....?
    much of the psychological information presented in the media focuses on practitioners, therapy and helping others.
  2. Which of the following is true regarding psychology and its relationship to science?
    The use of scientific method in psychological research makes psychology a science.
  3. Which of the following is an example of a mental process?
    problem solving
  4. Psychology has been described as having ________.
    a long past but only a short history
  5. Introspection is to ________ as free association is to _______.
    Wilhelm Wundt; Sigmund Freud
  6. The ________ perspective explains behavior as the product of thoughts and interpretations that are based on memory, expectations, beliefs, problem solving, or decision making.
    cognitive
  7. Which of the following perspectives is similar to the biological and functionalist perspective?
    evolutionary
  8. ___________ work is most closely associated with John Watson's Behaviorism.
    B.F. Skinner's
  9. If you are interested in helping other people, what subfield of psychology could you choose to focus on in your career?
    • All of these subfields can meet your interests of helping others:
    • sports psychology
    • counseling psychology
    • school psychology
  10. Dr. Starr is a forensic psychologist. She ________.
    assists law enforcement organizations in conducting profiles of possible crime suspects.
  11. Which of the following represent goals of psychological research?
    • all of these represent goals of psychology and psychological research
    • predicting behaviors
    • describing behavior
    • explaining behavior
  12. In examining the role of women in psychology, we find ________.
    that women occupied 47% of tull-time faculty positions in psychology departments despite being awarded 68% of psychology doctoral degrees in 2003
  13. Which of the following is part of the scientific method used by psychologist to test ideas about behavior?
    forming testable hypotheses, collecting data, and systematically applying objective checking procedures to the data
  14. A researcher located a person who had remarkable memory for visual material. This person's memory for such material was so remarkable that the researcher wanted to know much more about this person's abilities. Since this ability was so unusual, the researcher knew that he or she was unlikely to study other people with similar abilities. The researcher is likely to use what research methodology in studying this person's memory?
    the case study method
  15. When a correction coefficient is near -1.0 it indicates:
    all the answers are not correct
  16. Although experiments sound appealing as a research methodology they have disadvantages. Those include:
    their ability to include important characteristics like attempts to eliminate confounding variables.
  17. Disclosing detail regarding any risks of side-effects that may be experienced as a result of someones participation in a study is part of:
    The informed consent process
  18. The American Psychological Association publishes a list of ethical guidelines in the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" that govern
    all answers are correct
  19. Stanley MilGram conducted research in the 1960's in which people we led to believe that they were applying electrical shocks to other humans in a learning study every time the other person got an item wrong. In reality, no electrical shocks were being applied, but the research participants genuinely believed their behavior was harming another person. The research:
    is an example of use deception
  20. When using animals in psychological research:
    Harmful or painful procedures used on animals must first be justified in terms of knowledge that is to be gained from the study.
  21. It is estimated that the brain of an adult human contains about ________ neurons.
    100 billion
  22. The branch-like structures of neurons that receive incoming signals from other neurons are called _________
    dendrites
  23. People with MS have difficulty controlling the action of their bodies and have sensory problems, including numbness and vision loss. these problems arise when ___________?
    the myelin that insulated axons breaks down resulting in slowing down or halting altogether of neural signals
  24. Another term for a neural impulse within a neuron is _______.
    Action potential
  25. ________ convey information from the outside world to the central nervous system, while _________ carry signals from the central nervous system to our muscles.
    sensory neurons, motor neurons
  26. Excitation in the postsynaptic cell is important in the nervous system because __________.
    excitation ensures the messages will continue onward through the nervous system after they cross the synapse.
  27. The removing and returning of unused neurotransmitters left in the synapse to the vesicles of the presynaptic neuron us a process called ___________.
    reputake
  28. _________ is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, while _________ is the chief excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
    GABE, glutamate
  29. Neurotransmitters that are chemically similar to a class of narcotic drugs called opiates, and help block pain messages in the central nervous system are called ______.
    endorphins
  30. Anita's grandmother suffers from Alzheimer's disease. Her grandmother is likely to show a loss of functioning in neurons that release _________ in their synapse.
    acetylcholine
  31. Neurons are found in all of the following except ___________.
    the endoctrine system
  32. What are the two main subdivisions of the human nervous system?
    the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
  33. The functioning of the __________ allows us to control our bodies in a deliberated and flexible manner, like when we step down from a curb or reach out for an apple.
    somatic nervous system
  34. Which of the following physical reactions is not associated with the fight or flight response?
    increased digestion
  35. You are asleep and you begin to dream. Which of the following is true regarding the hindbrain and dreaming.
    The pons plays a role in your dreaming.
  36. The reticular activating system (RAS)
    helps regulate arousal levels
  37. The forebrain is made up of _________.
    limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cortex
  38. All input from our senses to the brain first travels to the thalamus before being sent to the appropriate part of the cortex for the further processing except input from the sense of _________.
    smell
  39. Humans appear to think differently than other animals. We are capable of high-level mental processes like planning, decision-making, perception, and language that are on a different level than other species. what part of our brain do we have to thank for giving us our humanness?
    the cortex!
  40. A group of researchers are interested in deciding where the same brain regions are used when people form mental images of an object, versus when they are actually looking at the object. In order to conduct their research, they need to use a technique for studying the brain that allows them to see brain activity. What technique should they use?
    positron emission tomography (PET) scans
  41. Which of the following questions may not be asked by a psychologists interested in psychophysics?
    How do we acquire attitudes?
  42. The absolute threshold is defines as:
    The minimum intensity of a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time.
  43. Weber's law is most closely associated with:
    Determining difference thresholds
  44. In the 1950's, James Vicary attempted to use subliminal persuasion to convince movie goers to buy more popcorn and soda by flashing messages between frames of the movie (they were at such a rapid speed that the messages abou not be perceived consciously) Further examination of Vicary's work revealed:
    that he had not conducted a true experiment
  45. Which of the following statements about sensing electromagnetic energy (light waves) is true?
    Humans can sense a very narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from about 360 nm 750 nm
  46. The amplitude of the light wave corresponds to its
    Brightness
  47. When light enters the eye the furst structure it passes though is the
    Cornea
  48. According to the opponent-process theory:
    Each type of opponent process cell in the visual system is sensitive to two colors of light but each cell can detect only one of these colors at a time
  49. The hair cells in the inner ear:
    Convert sound wave energy into neural impulses
  50. The fact that hair cells can fire at a maximum of 1000 action potentials per second creates a serious problem for which theory of pitch perception?
    Frequency theory
  51. When Toby hears a sound, the first three parts of the ear (starting from the outside and working inward) that the sound waves pass through are:
    Pinna, Auditory Canal, balisar eardrum
  52. Which of the following is Not a structure in the middle ear?
    The basilar membrane
  53. Which of the following is by far the least understood?
    Smell
  54. Which of the following is a true statement regarding the sense of taste:
    There is a blind spot for taste in the middle of the tongue
  55. The sense of smell (olfaction):
    Aids our sense of taste
  56. Our sense of taste is influence by all of the except ___________.
    All of these can influence our sense of taste
  57. Which of the following theories proposes that olfactory receptors are excited by odor molecules in much the same way neurotransmitters excite receptor site of the postsynaptic neuron
    Lock-and-key theory
  58. Which layer of our skin contains most touch receptors?
    the dermis and epidermis have equal number of touch receptors
  59. When gymnasts perform a skill that requires jumping, it is very important for them to know where their bodies re so that they can complete their skill and land safely. they gather information from muscles, tendons, skin and joints in order to keep themselves oriented. This involves their ____________.
    Sense of kinesthesis
  60. You are looking at an ambiguous picture. You perceive the lines, curves, dots, shaded areas, and shapes of this picture. then you try to fit these components together to figure out what the picture means. You are primarily using:
    Bottom-Up processing
  61. The amount of sleep needed to stay alert and healthy is:
    There is no definite number of hours
  62. Which of the following is not true regarding the suprachiasmatic nucleus?
    It is regulated by melatonin
  63. ________ is a light sleep characterized by thelta waves. In this sleep stage you may experience sensation such as falling or floating; furthermore, you can easily awaken from this sleep stage.
    Stage 1 sleep
  64. Which of the following is true regarding REM sleep?
    Muscle tone significantly decreases during REM sleep, leaving muscles relaxed and essentially paralyzed.
  65. During a typical night's sleep, people:
    Continually cycle through non-REM and REM sleep stage. Spending more time in REM sleep during each cycle as the night progresses
  66. Joan does not experience paralysis that normally accompanies REM sleep. She may be suffering from:
    REM behavior disorder
  67. According to Sigmund Freud, dream:
    Allow us to express fears and sexual aggression desires without the censorship of our conscious desires
  68. Which of the following explanation about why we dream suggests that dreams serve as a way of coping with daily problems and issues?
    The continuity hypothesis
  69. When comparing the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming wFreud's theory of dreaming, we find:
    That Freud's theory focuses on the biological basis of dreams and the importance of symbolic or hidden meaning, while the activation-synthesis model focuses only biological explanations of dreams
  70. Which of the following is bad advice for a person who suffers from insomnia?
    You should have some alcoholic drink prior to going to sleep in order to help you relax or get a good night's sleep
  71. Sleepwalking or somnambulism occurs during
    Non REM stage 1V sleep
  72. Which of the following is not true about night terrors?
    They typically occur during REM sleep
  73. When psychologists examine hypnotic susceptibility, or the ability of people to become hypnotized, they found:
    The people who are better able to focus their attention and have positive expectations about hypnosis are easily hypnotized
  74. The dissociation theory of hypnosis maintains that:
    Your consciousness becomes divided in two states
  75. Ella wants to stop smoking and chooses hypnosis as a method of treating her addiction. What is likely to be true regarding her treatment.
    Treating her smoking habit with hypnosis does not appear to have an advantage over types of treatment
  76. In which situation are the results of the use of hypnosis NOT controversial
    Hypnosis can be used to decrease fears and anxieties in people with high suggestibility to hypnosis.
  77. In a classic demonstration of hypnosis, Ernest Hilgard suggested to hypnotized participants that they would feel no pain while their arms were submerged in ice cold water. What happened in this demonstration?
    When asked if they felt pain, the participants replied "no", yet when they were asked to press a key with their other hand they felt pain, the participants did so.
  78. The difference between a safe does and a potentially harmful does us called
    Margin of safety
  79. In 2006, __________ of the people in the United States age 12 and older admitted to having tried an illegal substance at come point in their lives.
    45%
  80. Typically, psychologists use the term _________ to indicate that someone has lost control over their addiction
    Substance abuse
  81. Holmes and Rahe (1967) set out measure the impact of particular stressors on peoples health. They found:
    the higher the people scored on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the more they were prone to illness
  82. Post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with stressors on which category?
    catastrophes
  83. Daily hassles
    May be easily shrugged off by some people
  84. The type of conflict that is accompanied by the least amount of perceived stress is:
    The approach-approach conflict
  85. Josh was offered a job in a major city. he finds the idea of living in an urban area exciting; however, it also means leaving his whole family and all his friends behind in the small town he has lived in all his life. Josh realizes that there are definite pluses and minuses to this job offer. This represents:
    an approach avoidance conflict
  86. Your primary appraisal of an event can be
    irrelevant, stressful, or positive
  87. Randy was crossing the street when he heard the squeal of tired. This immediately launched him into which of Selye's GAS phases?
    alarm reaction
  88. Petra has been coping with her mother;s long-term illness. This continual state of stress could make Petra:
    more likely to catch colds
  89. When corticosteroids and endorphins are released into our bodies during the stress respone
    it serves to suppress the activity of our immune system
  90. Which of the following is true regarding cancer patients and their emotions?
    Patients who express their emotions about the disease tend to have a higher chance of survival than patients who hold in their emotions.
  91. Marissa is miserable and stressed! She is working 30 hours per week without having her two children in daycare. her work hours are crammed into her nights, weekeds and days when she can bribe her husband to watch the children. As a result, Marissa is getting about three hours of sleep each night, never has time for herself and feels awful. If she uses problem-focused coping, she:
    might see whether the children could go to daycare for a few hours per week to help her get more work done during the daytime hours.
  92. Defense mechanisms as a way of coping:
    do not necessarily eliminate the source of stress
  93. Ed has been taking a class that teaches him to alternately tense and then relax each muscle group in a systematic fashion. He is trying to recognize stress and tension. This process is part of which physical method of stress management?
    biofeedback training
  94. One of the cognitive stress management techniques involving using mental exercises in which people consciously focus their attention to heightened awareness and bring their mental processes under more control. People sit in a comfortable position with their eyes closed and silently focus their attention on a specifically assigned word that creates a resonant sound. This describes:
    meditation
  95. Owen feels very stressed because he has started law school and is working as much as possible in his spare time to earn money. He also has a wife and new baby at home. If you could suggest a successful way to manage his stress, you would:
    suggest that he laugh and try to adopt an optimistic attitude, while also focusing on managing his time better on order to reduce feelings of stress.
  96. Friedman and Rosenman (1974) the connection between personality and heart disease. They interviewed 3000 men categorizing each man as a Type A personality, Type B personality, or somewhere in between. They found that Type A personalties were two to three times more likely to have suffered a heart attack. Which of the following is true regarding this study and subsequent research?
    All of the answers will be correct
  97. Learned helplessness has been demonstrated in:
    dogs but not humans
  98. Which of the following is not what if the three Cs of hardiness?
    the use of condoms during sexual activities
  99. Researchers now think that:
    Only certain aspects of Type A personality lead to heart disease.
  100. Research has looked at whether the idea of a hardy personality translates into any particular tendencies in a person's health. Psychological research indicates:
    that hardy people are actually less satisfied with their work than other people
  101. In considering the role nature and nurture play in one's development, psychologists _______________.
    place an emphasis on the interaction of nature and nurture
  102. Reaching viability indicated
    that the fetus has the possibility of surviving outside the womb (but only in neonatal intensive care unit)
  103. Most miscarriages and birth defects are likely to occur during _______ stage of development.
    embryonic
  104. Researchers now believe:
    that providing stimulating age-appropriate activities foster and strengthens the brain development
  105. Mac thinks that if his parents break his graham cracker sheet into four pieces he has more cookies than if they leave the sheet whole. His inability to understand that he still has the same amount of cookies in both cases represents a lack of:
    conservation
  106. Children finally gain the ability to engage in abstract reasoning in which of Piaget's stages?
    formal operations
  107. According to Vygostsky, cognitive development:
    may proceed in any number of directions
  108. Leo is a typical thirteen-year-old boy. He is worried about what all of his friends will think about every decision he makes. This type of decision making is consistent with Kohlberg's
    conventional level of moral reasoning
  109. Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning:
    may apply more to people from Western cultures
  110. Some babies are in between when it comes to temperament: they do not show intense negative emotions all the time like crying, but they do take some time to adjust to new situations. Babies with this type of temperament are referred to as:
    slow-to-warm infants
  111. One year old Spencer is taking a parent-child class with his mom. When she leaves the room for parent discussion time Spencer cried briefly. This represents:
    Separation anxiety, which is a sign that Spencer has not formed an attachment with his mother.
  112. Baumrid's (1967-1971) research found that children of ________ were immature, disobedient, lacked impulses and were most likely to be disobedient.
    permissive parents
  113. According to Erikson's stages of psychological development:
    we incorporate a new quality into our personality at each stage
  114. _______ suggests that the social learning processes of modeling and reinforcement work together with a child's developing mental abilities to facilitate the child's understanding of gender.
    Gender-schema theory
  115. All fo the following are true regarding brain development around the time of adolescence EXCEPT:
    the brain is completely finished growing and developing by the end of adolescence and will no longer be able to generate neurons or adapt to response to new experiences.
  116. Joe is worried about what the aging process will do to his various sensory systems. If he is anything like a typical person he can expect:
    his hearing, especially for high pitched tones to decline somewhat
  117. Which of the following factors may shape how we function mentally?
    all of the choices
  118. ________ refers to the belief held by adolescents that they are unique and special and that their thoughts and feelings can not be adequately understood by others.
    the personal fable
  119. Wilma is near death and has been thinking about her life. she regrets not finishing school and seeking employment. She is happy with her life as a wife, homemake, and grandmother, but she wishes that she had entered the work world at some point in her life. Wilma is exhibiting what Erikson called:
    integrity versus despair
  120. The average age for first marriage in the U.S was _______ years for men and ______ for women.
    • 27.5
    • 25.9
  121. Psychologists have historically viewed motivation as _______.
    all of the statements will be correct
  122. the idea of maintaining homeostasis or an internal state of equilibrium is an important part of which type of theory of motivation.
    drive-reduction theories
  123. Drive-reduction theory:
    has been criticized because it cannot explain certain aspects of biological motives, like why people overeat
  124. Incentive theories of motivation differ from instinct, drive reduction, and arousal theories of motivation in that:
    incentives can be either intrinsic or extrinsic, but the other theories allow for motivation to be only intrinsic
  125. Maslow's theory of motivation is based on:
    a hierarchy of needs
  126. According to Maslow, the need for transcendence motivates one to:
    achieve full spiritual fulfillment in life
  127. Which of the following helps to initiate the hunger that motivates us to eat?
    the stomach, the liver, and the brain
  128. When we are hungry, the stomach releases a hormone called ______ that sends strong hunger signals to the brain.
    ghrelin
  129. Orlando's liver has been damaged by a disease. Which of the following functions is most likey to be affected by the damage to his liver
    his liver damage might affect his bodys ability to monitor glucose and glycogen levels.
  130. Which of the following plays a role in creating a feeling of satiety in humans?
    ventromedial hypothalamus
  131. Which of the following is true regarding dieting?
    When you diet, your body may take steps to avoid starvation by increasing feelings of hunger
  132. John's body mass index is 32. Which of the following statements is true based on this index?
    John is likely to be overweight
  133. Which of the following is a biological factor that has been found to be associated with gaining weight in some people?
    having low metabolic rate
  134. Which of the following is NOT true regarding bulimia?
    Ultimately, bulimia does not result in long-term damage to a person's health
  135. Brad is an example of a typical male in the United States. his sexual desire is a function of:
    his hormones, senses, thoughts and culture
  136. Which of the following is not true about human sexuality?
    Estrogen is closely related to human female libido
  137. Mitch and Ava just finished having intercourse. Due to the refractory period:
    Mitch will be physically incapable of experiencing another orgasm for a period of time, but Ava will have no such limitation.
  138. Kinsey's studies (1948-1953) revealed that:
    it was sometimes difficult to determine how many people were homosexual or bisexual because not everyone who has a same-sex sexual encounter views themselves to be homosexual or bisexual.
  139. Researchers have examined whether early gender related behavior may be a predictor of later sexual orientation for some males. Some studies found that:
    some boys who later became gay preferred traditionally feminine activities to traditional male activities during childhood.
  140. Studies investigating a possible genetic link in homosexuality have found:
    higher rates in identical twins that in fraternal twins, indicating a possible role for genetics
  141. Psychologist define ________ as the way in which we store and use information
    cognition
  142. When storing a mental representation of a visual stimulus it is likely that we store:
    both a visual image and a verbal label or information about the object
  143. We acquire ____ as we learn rigid rules that define certain categories of things, but we intuit and create rules of _____ as we live and experience the world.
    formal, concepts, natural concepts
  144. A Red Delicious apple might fit many people's image of an apple. In other words, if you had to think of a typical apple you might have this type of apple pop into your mind. Thus, a Red Delicious apple is an example of:
    a prototype
  145. If the problem you are solving has no algorithm, your problem is
    an ill structured problem
  146. Which of the following is NOT a reason to select a heuristic for problem solving?
    the algorithm that is available for the problem does not produce the correct answer
  147. Which of the following can be an obstacle to problem solving?
    mental set
  148. Charles can only conceive of a paperclip as being an object that holds papers together. This demonstrates his:
    functional fixedness
  149. The tendency to habitually use the method of problem solving that have worked for you in the past is called _________.
    a mental set

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