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What did Thomas Hobbes believe?
- we were all naturally wicked,and a strong ruler (monarch) was needed to control us
- british governement was best
What did John Locke believe?
agreed with Hobbes' natural rights of man- all people have 3 natural rights life, liberty, and the pursuit of property
What was the purpose John Locke's social contract?
to justify the overthrow of government
What did Voltaire do?
- influenced the US founding fathers
- got arrested in france for writings on the monarch and church
- used satire in his writings to criticize the monarch and church
What did Voltaire advocate?
religious tolerance and freedom of speech
What was Voltaire's famous quote?
I do not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it
What did Montesquieu do?
most heavily influenced our founders by his advocating a seperation of powers within gov.
What did Montesquieu believe were the only 3 types of government?
Republican, Monarchy, and despotism
What are the characteristics of state?
What is the force theory?
- State came to be from power
- strogest caveman got the power
What is the evolutionary theory?
state evolved from fathers leading families
What is the Divine Right Theory?
State came from god choosing someone to rule
What is the Social Contract Theory?
individual surrenders liberty in return for protection
What did the Magna Carta do?
- the first time the power of a monarch had been limited
- King John forced to sign by nobility
- garurnetees of fundamental rights such as trial by jury, and due process of law
- protection against absolute power
What was The Petition of Right?
- Signed by King Charles by force of parliament
- limited kings power- may not impose martial law, can not force quatering, punish only by laws of land, question divine right
What was the English Bill of Rights?
- sighned by william and mary of orange during glorious revolution
- prohibited standing army during peacetime
- required free parliamentary elections
What is government?
the institution through which a society makes and enforces public policies
What is public policy?
- all of the things a govt decides to do
- taxation defense education
How long have govt systems been around?
as long as humans
What is State?
a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and able to make and enforce laws
What 3 things does the social contract theory say?
- state exists only to serve the will of the people( pop. sovereignty)
- people are the sole source of political power
- people are free to give or take power away
What was the constitution made to do?
What is politics?
- pursuit and exercise of power
- or how we select leaders and what policies they pursure
- or who gets what when and how
what is power?
possesion of control over an enviorment or government
what is the study of power?
what is the pluralist theory?
people have the power in the us
what is the elitist theory?
the government or rich people have the power in the us
power flows from _____ to _____?
- the people
- the government
what is hyperpluralism?
theory of govt and politics contending that groups/ factions are so strong that govt is weakened
What are govt functions?
- matain national defense
- provide public services
- preserve order
- socialize the young
- collect taxes
How much of your income will go to taxes?
What is a unitary govt?
gives all key powers to national or central govt
What is a federal govt?
divides powers of govt between national and regional govts
What is a consitutional govt?
constitution has power to limit power of those who govern
What is a presidential govt?
power divided between independent and coequal executive and legislative branches
What is a parliamentary govt?
executive and legislative branches are combines
What is an autocracy govt?
ruled by a single individual
What is an oligarchy govt?
small group of people rules
What is a democracy govt?
- ruled by the people
- popular soverignty
What is a direct democracy?
- people govern by voting on issues
- only exists in small societies
What is a representative democracy?
people elect officals who govern and make laws
What is a republic?
elected representatives are responsible to the people; requires citizen participation
What is philosophy?
search for the truth
What is a monarchy?
single individual (monarch) has all the power
What is a constitutional monarch?
- a monarch acts as head of state within the guidelines of a constitution
- share power with elected government officals
What is a constitution?
written document that tells government what it can and cant do
What is Totalitarian?
What is Consensus Democracy?
needs unanimous approval to pass legislation
What is a theocracy?
rule by religious authority
What are demographics?
the study of changes that occur in large groups of people over a period of time
statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it.
What is the role of government with differing groups?
mediate among them, resolve conflicting points of view, and formulate polices that represent a collective view
What is political spin?
- creating a favorable image with the public
What is affirmative action?
policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination (minorities)
What are the core principals of democracy?
- Individual liberty
- political equality
- majority rule
- minority rights
- economic rights
What is individual liberty?
- individuals give up some rights in exchange for protection
- use remaining liberties to pursue a good life
What is political equality?
all citizens are born with equal standing before govt and are entitled to equal rights
What is popular sovereignty?
- rule by the people
- people collectively rule themselves
What is majority rule?
greater number should exercise greater power
What are minority rights?
minorities must be given rights because majorities that harm minorities rights diminish everyones rights
What are economic rights?
- right to own property
- individual liberty
- pursuit of happiness
What is indirect democracy?
citizens select policy makers to make decisions for them