A&P Quiz 2

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A&P Quiz 2
2014-01-19 16:04:40
A&P Quiz 2
A&P Quiz 2
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  1. Diaphragm
    • Most important muscle of inhalation. 
    • Resembles an upside-down bowl 
    • Moves down and goes flat when contracted
    • Attaches to the lower border of the rib cage
    • Pushes lower ribs out when it contracts
    • Creates most of the volume in the thorax for inspiration
  2. External Intercostals
    • Fills spaces between the ribs on the outside
    • Originate at the lower border of the rib
    • Insert into upper border of the rib below it
    • contract as one muscle
    • Second most important muscle of inspiration
  3. Levatores Costarum
    • 12 small muscles in the back
    • Originate from vertebrae
    • Insert into rib at lower border
    • Pulls up on ribs during inhalation  
    • Act as one muscle
    • Help stabilize the body (synergist)
  4. Serratus Posterior Superior
    • 4 muscles in the back
    • Originate at vertebrae
    • Insert into 2nd - 5th rib
    • Contract as one muscle 
    • Help to raise the upper ribs during inhalation
    • Have a jagged/serrated edge
    • Help stabilize the body (synergist)
  5. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Not a muscle of inhalation 
    • Large flat muscle of the back
    • Originates from upper arm to lower armpit 
    • Inserts into lower ribs
    • Used to stabilize the back (synergist) especially during heavy lifting
  6. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Neck muscle
    • Originates behind the ear at mastoid process of the temporal bone
    • Subdivides and inserts into the sternum and clavicle 
    • Elevates and lifts the sternum and clavicle which raises the ribs when both sides contract together
    • When contracted singularly, head turns toward side of contraction
    • Provides balance and stability for the head
  7. Scalene (Scalenus Anterior, Middle, and Posterior)
    • Originate at cervical vertebrae
    • Insert into first and second ribs
    • Provide balance and stability to the head
    • Contract to turn head toward side of contraction
    • Raise 1st and 2nd rib if head is fixated.
  8. Clavicular Breathing
    • Using only the accessory muscles of inspiration to elevate the ribcage (sternocleidomastoid and scalene)
    • Not using the diaphragm for breathing
    • Expansion is limited so less air fills the lungs
    • Usually result of medical condition
    • Difficult to sustain speech
  9. Pectoralis Major
    • Large upper chest muscle
    • Originates at the humerus 
    • Inserts into sternum and clavicle 
    • Arm must be fixated to aid in thoracic cavity expansion
  10. Pectoralis Minor
    • Underneath the pectoralis major
    • originates from scapula 
    • Inserts into 2nd and 3rd ribs
    • Scapula must be fixated to aid in thoracic cavity expansion
  11. Serratus Anterior
    • Large muscle
    • Originates at scapula
    • Inserts into upper 9 ribs
    • Acts as one muscle
    • Scapula must be fixated to aid in thoracic cavity expansion
  12. Subclavius Muscle
    • Originates under the clavicle 
    • Inserts into 1st rib 
    • Raises 1st rib when contracted
  13. Internal Intercostals
    • Fills spaces between inside of ribs
    • Originate lower border of rib
    • Insert into upper border of rib directly below it 
    • Connect to ribs at opposite angles than external intercostals
    • Pulls down on the ribcage when contracted
  14. Transversus Thoracis
    • Originates at lower part of the sternum
    • Inserts into 2nd - 6th rib
    • Pulls down on ribs 2 - 6 when contracted
    • Acts as one muscle
  15. Subcostals
    • Located on lower inside back wall of thorax
    • Originate at lower ribs near  vertebrae 
    • Insert into ribs after fanning up and out at the back
    • Pulls the lower ribs down when contracted
  16. Serratus Posterior Inferior
    • Originates in lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae 
    • Inserts into 4 lower ribs after fanning out and up
    • Pulls down 4 lower ribs when contracted
  17. Abdominal Muscles
    • Pull down on thorax
    • Compress abdomen
    • Pushes intestines back so that diaphragm can rise
  18. Transverse Abdominis
    Reduces volume of abdomen more than other abdominal muscles when contracted
  19. Internal Oblique
    Assists in rotating trunk when contracted
  20. External Oblique Abdominis
    • Originates at lower pelvis 
    • Inserts into ribs
    • Pulls lower ribs down
    • *Contracting both obliques help you bind over
  21. Rectus Abdominis
    Pulls down on sternum when contracted
  22. Quiet Inspiration
    Uses diaphragm and external intercostals
  23. Forced Inspiration
    Uses diaphragm, external intercostals and other accessory muscles of inhalation
  24. Passive Expiration
    • Uses torque: ribs twist as they raise and untwist as they lower
    • Elastic recoil of lungs and alveolar air sac
    • Gravity
  25. Forced Expiration
    • Torque 
    • Elasticity of lungs and alveolar air sacs
    • Gravity 
    • Muscle force