New and Old World exchange of crops, goods and diseases.
Rum, slave and molasses exchange between N America, Africa and W Indies
Sir Walter Reliegh's failed colony off N Carolina coast.
1607 1st permanent English settlement in N America founded by the Virginia Company
The Powatan Wars
Powhatan Indian confederacy vs. early English settlers in Virginia/ southern Maryland = the destruction of the Indian power.
U.S. colony's dependence on selling tobacco.
Puritans vs. pilgrims
Puritans: Reformers of the Anglican Church (from within)
Pilgrims: Puritans who refused to compromise purity, Separatists, had a form of Democracy
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Est. by non-separating Puritans, became most influential New England colonies
Unofficial policy of relaxed control of colonies.
Lasted from Glorious Revolution to French and Indian war in 1763
Uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers/indentured servants by Nataniel Bacon in response to poverty and lack of protection.
Transatlantic voyage slaves endured from Africa to the colonies, high mortality rates
Women in 17th Century New England
Arrived with family members to band together in religious communities, including shared economic goals, healthier living conditions allowed for reproduction by natural increase.
The Great Awakening
Religious revival that swept the colonies. J. Edwards, G. Whitfield. Emphasis on direct emotional spirituality.
A philosophical, intellectual and cultural movement 17th-18th cent. It stressed reason, logic, criticism and freedom of thought over dogma, blind faith and superstition
Young general in the revolution who became the first U.S. president
The French and Indian War
AKA The 7 years war
British and French war in N America, sent French out of America and sparked Seven Years' war
Proclamation of 1763
Parliament prohibited settlement passed Appalachian Mountains because of the Pontiac uprising.
Economic theory linking nation's political and military power to its bullion reserves. Favored protectionism and colonies for exportations.
Stamp Acts, Sugar Act
Laws passed by the British to raise taxes to pay for the French and Indian War
Accidental shooting death of five Americans by British soldiers.
Temporary and weak government after the Revolution. Couldn't get taxes
Horrible camp where the Americans almost died.
Thomas Paine and Common Sense
Pamphlet to urge colonies to declare war on British and establish a Republican government.
Was a Revolutionary and propagandist.
Articles of Confederation
1st American constitution, established U.S. as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress.
Created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood
Armed uprising of W Mass. debtors to lower taxes/end property foreclosures. Ended fast, inspired fears of “mob rule” among leading Revolutionaries.
The Great Compromise
Reconciled the New Jersey/Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in House/equal representation in Senate.
Broke stalemate at the convention/paved way for compromises over slavery/the Electoral College.
Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, favored a strong national government, arguing that the checks and balances in new Constitution protect people's liberties
Opponents of the 1787 Constitution, saw it as antidemocratic, didn't like power of the central government/feared for individuals’ liberties without bill of rights
The Federalist Papers
Collection of essays written by Federalists
The Constitution of the United States
Supreme law of the United States
Bill of Rights
Compromise to pass the constitution.
The Bank of the United States of America
Chartered by Congress as part of Alexander Hamilton’s financial program, the bank printed paper money and served as a depository for Treasury funds.
Rebellion over taxes on Whiskey, crushed quickly to end any idea of ending the new government
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Secretly written statements by Jefferson and Madison for the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia.
Against Federalist party, believed in a republic, as form of government, and equality of political opportunity
Revolution of 1800
Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency.
The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America’s political system
Judicary Act of 1801
Passed by departing Federalist Congress to make 16 new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary
War of 1812
Britain vs. U.S. over trade and impressment, draw but gave U.S. credibility/respect
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme court case, est. principle of "Judicial review"-idea that the Supreme Court had the authority to decide if something is constitutional.
The American System
Henry Clay’s three-pronged system to promote American industry: a strong banking system, a protective tariff and a federally funded transportation network
Era of Good Feelings
the period of one-party, Republican, rule during J. Monroe’s presidency. Obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank
reinforced the principle that federal courts are obligated to exercise judicial review,
Movement for greater democracy for the common man.
Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South.
Mexican American War
Treaty of Guadalupe-HidalgoMexican
Recognition of Texas (among other territories) as independent; End of conflict between Mexico and Texas
Agriculture and Immigration 19th century
Influx of Northern Euros
Improved agriculture tech along with factory tech
The Market Revolution
18th/19thcent transformation from a disaggregated, subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network.
Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815) was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat
contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code,
Created cotton gin
2nd Great Awakening
Religious revival characterized by emotional mass “camp meetings” and widespread conversion.
The Whig Party
party opposing Jackson and his Democratic Party. Supported the supremacy of Congress over the Presidency, favored of modernization and economic protectionism.
California Gold Rush
Inflow of miners to N CA after reports of gold in Sutter's Mill, Jan 1848. Allowed CA to go for statehood in 1849.
slogan used by Confederates (1860–61) to support secession from the U.S. Arguing that cotton exports would make them economically prosperous
American Colonization Society
Wanted to abolish slavery to send blacks to Liberia in Africa
Slave cargo ship, slaves took over even though slave imports were outlawed.
Compromise of 1850
CA as free, NM and UT as pop. sovereignty, ended slave trade in Wash. D.C.
Kansas Nebraska Act
S. Douglass suggested pop. sovereignty in KA and NB/revoking 1820 Missouri compromise to get Nebraska in the Union/pave way for N Transcontinental railroad
Missouri=slave, Maine=free, no slaves in Louisana purchase or N of 36° 30' line
Lincoln Douglass Debates
Lincoln and S. Douglass debating to get Lousiana senator. Talked all about slavery
Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics
Slave who sued for freedom. Lost, because he was property not a person.
The Crittenden Amendment
Failed Constitutional amendments would have given federal protection for slavery in all territories south of 36°30’ where slavery was supported by popular sovereignty.
John Brown's Raid
Failed attempt by the white abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt in 1859 by seizing a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
S Carolina location where Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War in April 1861 after Union tried to provision the fort
Declared all slaves in rebelling states to be free , didn't affect slavery in non-rebelling Border States. closed the door on compromise with the South/encouraged 1000s of S slaves to flee to Union
Naval tactic by the Northern government to prevent the Confederacy from trading.
General-in-Chief Winfield Scott's outline strategy for subduing the seceding states in the U.S. Civil War. emphasized the blockade of the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two.
Robert E. Lee
best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War.
(September 1862): Landmark battle in the Civil War ended in a draw, demonstrated the prowess of the Union army, forestalling foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the “victory” he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
(July 1863): Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett’s daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines
Sherman's March to the Sea
Union General William Tecumseh Sherman’s destructive march through Georgia, total war to destroy morale
Founded American Red Cross, helped people all the time and didn't stay in the home like most women
Merrimack and Monitor
(1862): Confederate and Union ironclads, respectively, whose successes against wooden ships signaled an end to wooden warships. They fought an historic, though inconsequential battle in 1862
Union Gen who played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these characteristics may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment
Ulysses S. Grant
military commander in the American Civil War. Under Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military; the war, and secession, ended with the surrender of Robert E. Lee's army at Appomattox Court House
president as Abraham Lincoln's vice president at the time of Lincoln's assassination. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded
Laws passed in the South to restricts rights of emancipated blacks, especially with labor.
Knights of the White Camellia
founded in 1867 by Andrew J. McMillan. It was a secret group in the American South, similar to and associated with the Ku Klux Klan, supporting white supremacy and opposed to Republican party government
strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted ex-Confederates, demanding harsh policies for the former rebels, and emphasizing civil rights and voting rights for freedmen
The Reconstruction Acts
Divided the South into 5 military districts, disenfranchised former confederates, and required that S states ratify the 14th Amendment/write state constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the franchise before being Union again.
Putting gov. officials on trial to take them out of their position
Aided newly freed slaves with needs. Usefulness depended on local admins/support
Econ. control by William Tweed
Plessy vs. Ferguson
a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
Jim Crow Laws
Racial segregation laws 1867-1965. "Separate but equal"
Black/white farmers rented land from plantations for a share of their crops. Made tenants dependent
Compromise of 1877
Resolved 1876 election, ended reconstruction era. R.B.Hayes as pres. withdraw fed. troops, S returns to white-only Demo. dominated electoral politics
Influx of Chinese in the U.S. forced to work in horrible railroad conditions
Chinese Exclusionary Act
Fed. Legislation that prohibited more Chinese immigration to U.S. 1882
Panic of 1893
A depression, marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing, resulting in a series of bank failures
a radical agrarian-oriented American political party commonly called "the Populists
American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation.
Gospel of Wealth
article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
Believed wealthy were that way because they were better, survival of the fittest
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Forbade trusts or combinations of businesses in an attempt to regulate big business for public good
John D. Rockfeller
American business magnate and philanthropist. He was a co-founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust
Believed wealthy needed to donate and help the poor. New money
Booker T. Washington
Black community leader/educater
first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Dawes severity Act
Broke up the Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households. Leftover land was sold.
protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey
End of the Great Frontier
1890, the Census Bureau announced the end of the frontier,no longer a discernible frontier line in the west, nor any large tracts of land yet unbroken by settlement
a Hunkpapa Lakota holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies
led his band during the most tumultuous period in their contemporary history when they were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the Wallowa Valley by the United States federal government and forced to move northeast, onto the significantly reduced reservation in Lapwai, Idaho Territory
Helen Hunt Jackson
American poet and writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government.
Eugene V. Debs
American union leader best known for socialism
Spanish American War
conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.
Open Door Policy
grant multiple international powers with equal access to China, with none of them in total control of that country. On paper, the policy was aimed to safeguard Chinese sovereignty and territorial integrity from partition.
Shot and fatally wounded on September 6, 1901, in Buffalo, New York. McKinley was shaking hands with the public when he was shot by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist.
Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
states that the U.S. will intervene in conflicts between Euro countries and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly
Last monarch of Hawii
New Imperialism of the US
period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions
conflict arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to secure independence from the United States following the latter's acquisition of the Philippines from Spain
Scandal mongering practice of journalism in NY during the Glided age between J. Pulitzer and W. R. Hearst
American cigar maker who became a labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
The Hull House
settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House (named for the home's first owner) opened its doors to recently arrived European immigrants
The increasing number of people living in urban environments, cities and working in factories
An organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals
New influx of immigrants from Europe, especially Ireland and East Europe
used his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography.
1906 book written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair (1878–1968). Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
A fire in a shirt factory the lead to the deaths of hundreds of women and significant changes in safety policies.
a landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it justifies both sex discrimination and usage of labor laws during the time period.
case involved a New York law that limited the number of hours that a baker could work each day to ten, and limited the number of hours that a baker could work each week to 60
The Three "C" s of Roosevelt's political reform
control of corporations, consumer protection, & conservation of natural resources
the effort of the United Statesto further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
Roosevelt's domestic reform aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor
reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines and continued a tradition of investigative journalism reporting.
an American teacher, author and journalist. She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era
Robert M. Lafollette
senator, congressman, governor of Wisconsin and candidate for President, (1912 and 1924)
Women's right to vote
Triple Wall of Privilege
comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson
the 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movemen