APUSH Semester One Final

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APUSH Semester One Final
2014-01-19 21:55:19
First semester APUSH Review
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  1. Columbian Exchange
    New and Old World exchange of crops, goods and diseases.
  2. Triangular trade
    Rum, slave and molasses exchange between N America, Africa and W Indies
  3. Roanoke
    Sir Walter Reliegh's failed colony off N Carolina coast.
  4. Jamestown
    1607 1st permanent English settlement in N America founded by the Virginia Company
  5. The Powatan Wars
    Powhatan Indian confederacy vs. early English settlers in Virginia/ southern Maryland = the destruction of the Indian power.
  6. Tobacco Economy
    U.S. colony's dependence on selling tobacco.
  7. Puritans vs. pilgrims
    • Puritans: Reformers of the Anglican Church (from within)
    • Pilgrims: Puritans who refused to compromise purity, Separatists, had a form of Democracy
  8. Massachusetts Bay Colony
    Est. by non-separating Puritans, became most influential New England colonies
  9. Salutary Neglect
    • Unofficial policy of relaxed control of colonies.
    • Lasted from Glorious Revolution to French and Indian war in 1763
  10. Bacon's Rebellion
    Uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers/indentured servants by Nataniel Bacon in response to poverty and lack of protection.
  11. Middle Passage
    Transatlantic voyage slaves endured from Africa to the colonies, high mortality rates
  12. Women in 17th Century New England
    Arrived with family members to band together in religious communities, including shared economic goals, healthier living conditions allowed for reproduction by natural increase.
  13. The Great Awakening
    Religious revival that swept the colonies. J. Edwards, G. Whitfield. Emphasis on direct emotional spirituality.
  14. The enlightenment
    A philosophical, intellectual and cultural movement 17th-18th cent. It stressed reason, logic, criticism and freedom of thought over dogma, blind faith and superstition
  15. George Washington
    Young general in the revolution who became the first U.S. president
  16. The French and Indian War
    • AKA The 7 years war
    • 1754-1763
    • British and French war in N America, sent French out of America and sparked Seven Years' war
  17. Proclamation of 1763
    Parliament prohibited settlement passed Appalachian Mountains because of the Pontiac uprising.
  18. Mercantilism
    Economic theory linking nation's political and military power to its bullion reserves. Favored protectionism and colonies for exportations.
  19. Stamp Acts, Sugar Act
    Laws passed by the British to raise taxes to pay for the French and Indian War
  20. Boston Massacure
    Accidental shooting death of five Americans by British soldiers.
  21. Continental congress
    Temporary and weak government after the Revolution. Couldn't get taxes
  22. Valley Forge
    Horrible camp where the Americans almost died.
  23. Thomas Paine and Common Sense
    • Pamphlet to urge colonies to declare war on British and establish a Republican government.
    • Was a Revolutionary and propagandist.
  24. Articles of Confederation
    1st American constitution, established U.S. as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress.
  25. Northwest Ordinance
    Created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood
  26. Shay's Rebellion
    Armed uprising of W Mass. debtors to lower taxes/end property foreclosures. Ended fast, inspired fears of “mob rule” among leading Revolutionaries.
  27. The Great Compromise
    • Reconciled the New Jersey/Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in House/equal representation in Senate.
    • Broke stalemate at the convention/paved way for compromises over slavery/the Electoral College.
  28. Federalists
    Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, favored a strong national government, arguing that the checks and balances in new Constitution protect people's liberties
  29. Anti-Federalists
    Opponents of the 1787 Constitution, saw it as antidemocratic, didn't like power of the central government/feared for individuals’ liberties without bill of rights
  30. The Federalist Papers
    Collection of essays written by Federalists
  31. The Constitution of the United States
    Supreme law of the United States
  32. Bill of Rights
    Compromise to pass the constitution.
  33. The Bank of the United States of America
    Chartered by Congress as part of Alexander Hamilton’s financial program, the bank printed paper money and served as a depository for Treasury funds.
  34. Whiskey Rebellion
    Rebellion over taxes on Whiskey, crushed quickly to end any idea of ending the new government
  35. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    Secretly written statements by Jefferson and Madison for the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia.
  36. Jeffersonian
    Against Federalist party, believed in a republic, as form of government, and equality of political opportunity
  37. Revolution of 1800
    • Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency.
    • The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America’s political system
  38. Judicary Act of 1801
    Passed by departing Federalist Congress to make 16 new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary
  39. War of 1812
    Britain vs. U.S. over trade and impressment, draw but gave U.S. credibility/respect
  40. Marbury v. Madison
    Supreme court case, est. principle of "Judicial review"-idea that the Supreme Court had the authority to decide if something is constitutional.
  41. The American System
    Henry Clay’s three-pronged system to promote American industry: a strong banking system, a protective tariff and a federally funded transportation network
  42. Era of Good Feelings
    the period of one-party, Republican, rule during J. Monroe’s presidency. Obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank
  43. John Marshall
    reinforced the principle that federal courts are obligated to exercise judicial review,
  44. Jacksonian Democracy
    Movement for greater democracy for the common man.
  45. Peculiar institution
    Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South.
  46. Mexican American War
    • American victory
    • Treaty of Guadalupe-HidalgoMexican
    • Recognition of Texas (among other territories) as independent; End of conflict between Mexico and Texas
  47. Agriculture and Immigration 19th century
    • Influx of Northern Euros
    • Improved agriculture tech along with factory tech
  48. The Market Revolution
    18th/19thcent transformation from a disaggregated, subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network.
  49. Robert
    Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815) was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat
  50. Samuel Morse
    contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code,
  51. Eli Whitney
    Created cotton gin
  52. 2nd Great Awakening
    Religious revival characterized by emotional mass “camp meetings” and widespread conversion.
  53. The Whig Party
    party opposing Jackson and his Democratic Party. Supported the supremacy of Congress over the Presidency, favored of modernization and economic protectionism.
  54. California Gold Rush
    Inflow of miners to N CA after reports of gold in Sutter's Mill, Jan 1848. Allowed CA to go for statehood in 1849.
  55. King Cotton
    slogan used by Confederates (1860–61) to support secession from the U.S. Arguing that cotton exports would make them economically prosperous
  56. American Colonization Society
    Wanted to abolish slavery to send blacks to Liberia in Africa
  57. Amistad
    Slave cargo ship, slaves took over even though slave imports were outlawed.
  58. Compromise of 1850
    CA as free, NM and UT as pop. sovereignty, ended slave trade in Wash. D.C.
  59. Kansas Nebraska Act
    S. Douglass suggested pop. sovereignty in KA and NB/revoking 1820 Missouri compromise to get Nebraska in the Union/pave way for N Transcontinental railroad
  60. Missouri Compromise
    Missouri=slave, Maine=free, no slaves in Louisana purchase or N of 36° 30' line
  61. Lincoln Douglass Debates
    Lincoln and S. Douglass debating to get Lousiana senator. Talked all about slavery
  62. Know Nothings
    Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics
  63. Dred Scott
    Slave who sued for freedom. Lost, because he was property not a person.
  64. The Crittenden Amendment
    Failed Constitutional amendments would have given federal protection for slavery in all territories south of 36°30’ where slavery was supported by popular sovereignty.
  65. John Brown's Raid
    Failed attempt by the white abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt in 1859 by seizing a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
  66. Fort Sumter
    S Carolina location where Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War in April 1861 after Union tried to provision the fort
  67. Emancipation Proclamation
    Declared all slaves in rebelling states to be free , didn't affect slavery in non-rebelling Border States. closed the door on compromise with the South/encouraged 1000s of S slaves to flee to Union
  68. Union Blockade
    Naval tactic by the Northern government to prevent the Confederacy from trading.
  69. Anaconda Plan
    General-in-Chief Winfield Scott's outline strategy for subduing the seceding states in the U.S. Civil War. emphasized the blockade of the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two.
  70. Robert E. Lee
    best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War.
  71. Antietam
    (September 1862): Landmark battle in the Civil War ended in a draw, demonstrated the prowess of the Union army, forestalling foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the “victory” he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
  72. Gettysburg
    (July 1863): Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett’s daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines
  73. Sherman's March to the Sea
    Union General William Tecumseh Sherman’s destructive march through Georgia, total war to destroy morale
  74. Clara Barton
    Founded American Red Cross, helped people all the time and didn't stay in the home like most women
  75. Merrimack and Monitor
    (1862): Confederate and Union ironclads, respectively, whose successes against wooden ships signaled an end to wooden warships. They fought an historic, though inconsequential battle in 1862
  76. Gen. McClellan
    Union Gen who played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these characteristics may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment
  77. Ulysses S. Grant
    military commander in the American Civil War. Under Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military; the war, and secession, ended with the surrender of Robert E. Lee's army at Appomattox Court House
  78. Andrew Johnson
    president as Abraham Lincoln's vice president at the time of Lincoln's assassination. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded
  79. Black Codes
    Laws passed in the South to restricts rights of emancipated blacks, especially with labor.
  80. Knights of the White Camellia
    founded in 1867 by Andrew J. McMillan. It was a secret group in the American South, similar to and associated with the Ku Klux Klan, supporting white supremacy and opposed to Republican party government
  81. Radical Republicans
    strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted ex-Confederates, demanding harsh policies for the former rebels, and emphasizing civil rights and voting rights for freedmen
  82. The Reconstruction Acts
    Divided the South into 5 military districts, disenfranchised former confederates, and required that S states ratify the 14th Amendment/write state constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the franchise before being Union again.
  83. Impeachment
    Putting gov. officials on trial to take them out of their position
  84. Freedman's Bureau
    Aided newly freed slaves with needs. Usefulness depended on local admins/support
  85. Tweed Ring
    Econ. control by William Tweed
  86. Plessy vs. Ferguson
    a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
  87. Jim Crow Laws
    Racial segregation laws 1867-1965. "Separate but equal"
  88. Sharecropping
    Black/white farmers rented land from plantations for a share of their crops. Made tenants dependent
  89. Compromise of 1877
    Resolved 1876 election, ended reconstruction era. R.B.Hayes as pres. withdraw fed. troops, S returns to white-only Demo. dominated electoral politics
  90. Chinese Immigration
    Influx of Chinese in the U.S. forced to work in horrible railroad conditions
  91. Chinese Exclusionary Act
    Fed. Legislation that prohibited more Chinese immigration to U.S. 1882
  92. Panic of 1893
    A depression, marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing, resulting in a series of bank failures
  93. American Populism
    a radical agrarian-oriented American political party commonly called "the Populists
  94. J.P. Morgan
    American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation.
  95. Gospel of Wealth
    article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
  96. Social Darwinism
    Believed wealthy were that way because they were better, survival of the fittest
  97. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    Forbade trusts or combinations of businesses in an attempt to regulate big business for public good
  98. John D. Rockfeller
    American business magnate and philanthropist. He was a co-founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust
  99. Andrew Carnegie
    Believed wealthy needed to donate and help the poor. New money
  100. Booker T. Washington
    Black community leader/educater
  101. W.E.B. DuBois
    first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
  102. Dawes severity Act
    Broke up the Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households. Leftover land was sold.
  103. Coxey's Army
    protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey
  104. End of the Great Frontier
    1890, the Census Bureau announced the end of the frontier,no longer a discernible frontier line in the west, nor any large tracts of land yet unbroken by settlement
  105. Sitting Bull
    a Hunkpapa Lakota holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies
  106. Chief Joseph
    led his band during the most tumultuous period in their contemporary history when they were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the Wallowa Valley by the United States federal government and forced to move northeast, onto the significantly reduced reservation in Lapwai, Idaho Territory
  107. Helen Hunt Jackson
    American poet and writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government.
  108. Eugene V. Debs
    American union leader best known for socialism
  109. Spanish American War
    conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.
  110. Open Door Policy
    grant multiple international powers with equal access to China, with none of them in total control of that country. On paper, the policy was aimed to safeguard Chinese sovereignty and territorial integrity from partition.
  111. McKinley's Assassination
    Shot and fatally wounded on September 6, 1901, in Buffalo, New York. McKinley was shaking hands with the public when he was shot by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist.
  112. Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    states that the U.S. will intervene in conflicts between Euro countries and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly
  113. Queen Liliuokalani
    Last monarch of Hawii
  114. New Imperialism of the US
    period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions
  115. Philippine-American War
    conflict arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to secure independence from the United States following the latter's acquisition of the Philippines from Spain
  116. Yellow Journalism
    Scandal mongering practice of journalism in NY during the Glided age between J. Pulitzer and W. R. Hearst
  117. Samuel Gompers
    American cigar maker who became a labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
  118. The Hull House
    settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House (named for the home's first owner) opened its doors to recently arrived European immigrants
  119. Urbanization
    The increasing number of people living in urban environments, cities and working in factories
  120. Unionization
    An organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals
  121. New Immigrants
    New influx of immigrants from Europe, especially Ireland and East Europe
  122. Jacob Riis
    used his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography.
  123. Tenements
  124. The Jungle
    1906 book written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair (1878–1968).[1] Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities.
  125. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    A fire in a shirt factory the lead to the deaths of hundreds of women and significant changes in safety policies.
  126. Muller case
    a landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it justifies both sex discrimination and usage of labor laws during the time period.
  127. Lochner case
    case involved a New York law that limited the number of hours that a baker could work each day to ten, and limited the number of hours that a baker could work each week to 60
  128. The Three "C" s of Roosevelt's political reform
    control of corporations, consumer protection, & conservation of natural resources
  129. Dollar Diplomacy
    the effort of the United Statesto further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
  130. Square Deal
    Roosevelt's domestic reform aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor
  131. Muckraking Journalism
    reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines and continued a tradition of investigative journalism reporting.
  132. Ida Tarbell
    an American teacher, author and journalist. She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era
  133. Robert M. Lafollette
    senator, congressman, governor of Wisconsin and candidate for President, (1912 and 1924)
  134. Women's Suffrage
    Women's right to vote
  135. Triple Wall of Privilege
    • comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson
    • Tariff Reform
    • Business Reform
    • Banking Reform
  136. Woodrow Wilson
    the 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movemen