Muscles: Origins, Insertions, Actions, and Innervations

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kbb5y2
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25743
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Muscles: Origins, Insertions, Actions, and Innervations
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2010-07-05 22:27:55
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Anatomy
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Anatomy Longview Community College
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  1. Buccinator
    • O: Alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible opposite to the molar teeth
    • I: Fibers of Orbicularis Oris
    • A: Compresses cheeks
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  2. Orbicularis Oris
    • O: Maxilla and Mandible
    • I: Lips
    • A: Compresses, purses lips
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  3. Risorious
    • O: Fascia surrounding parotid salivary gland
    • I: Angle of mouth
    • A: Draws corner of mouth to the side
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  4. Levator Anguli Oris
    • O: Maxilla inferior to the infra-orbital foramen
    • I: Skin at the angle of mouth
    • A: Raises corner of mouth
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  5. Depressor Anguli Oris
    • O: Anterolateral surface of mandibular body
    • I: Skin at angle of mouth
    • A: Depresses corner of mouth
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  6. Zygomaticus Major
    • O: Zygomatic bone near the zygomaticotemporal suture
    • I: Angle of mouth
    • A: Retracts and elevates corner of mouth
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  7. Zygomaticus Minor
    • O: Zygomatic bone posterior to the zygomaticomaxillary suture
    • I: Upper Lip
    • A: Retracts and elevates upper lio
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  8. Orbicularis Oculi
    • O: Medial margin of orbit
    • I: Skin around eyelids
    • A: Closes eye
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  9. Occipitofrontalis - Frontal Belly
    • O: Epicranial Aponeurosis
    • I: Skin of eyebrow and bridge of nose
    • A: Raises eyebrows and wrinkles forehead
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  10. Occipitofrontalis - Occipital Belly
    • O: Superior nuchal line and adjacent region of mastoid portion of the temporal bone
    • I: Epicranial Aponeurosis
    • A: Tenses scalp and moves auricle of ear
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  11. Inferior Rectus
    • O: Sphenoid around optic canal
    • I: Inferior, medial surface of eyeball
    • A: Eye looks down
    • N: Oculomotor Nerve (3)
  12. Medial Rectus
    • O: Sphenoid around optic canal
    • I: Medial surface of eyeball
    • A: Eye looks medially
    • N: Oculomotor Nerve (3)
  13. Superior Rectus
    • O: Sphenoid around optic canal
    • I: Superior surface of eyeball
    • A: Eye looks up
    • N: Oculomotor Nerve (3)
  14. Lateral Rectus
    • O: Sphenoid around optic canal
    • I: Lateral surface of eyeball
    • A: Eye looks laterally
    • N: Abducens Nerve (6)
  15. Inferior Oblique
    • O: Maxilla at anterior portion of orbit
    • I: Inferior, lateral surface of eyeball
    • A: Eye rolls, looks up and laterally
    • N: Oculomotor Nerve (3)
  16. Superior Oblique
    • O: Spheniod around optic canal
    • I: Superior, lateral surface of eyeball
    • A: Eye rolls, looks down and laterally
    • N: Trochlear Nerve (4)
  17. Masseter
    • O: Zygomatic Arch
    • I: Lateral surface and angle of mandibular ramus
    • A: Elevates mandible and closes jaws
    • N: Trigeminal Nerve (5), Mandibular Branch
  18. Temporalis
    • O: Along temporal lines of skull
    • I: Coronoid process of mandible
    • A: Elevates mandible and closes jaws
    • N: Trigeminal Nerve (5), Mandibular Branch
  19. Sternohyoid
    • O: Clavicle and Manubrium
    • I: Hyoid Bone
    • A: Depresses hyoid bone and larynx
    • N: Cervical Spine Nerves C1-C3
  20. Sternothyroid
    • O: Dorsal surface of manubrium and first costal cartilage
    • I: Thyroid cartilage of larynx
    • A: Depresses hyoid bone and larynx
    • N: Cervical Spinal Nerves C1-C3
  21. Stylohyoid
    • O: Styloid process of temporal bone
    • I: Hyoid bone
    • A: Elevates larynx
    • N: Facial Nerve (7)
  22. Sternocleidomastoid - Clavicular Head
    • O: Attaches to sternal end of clavicle
    • I: Mastoid region of skull and lateral portion of superior nuchal line
    • A:Flex the neck along with sternal head; By itself it bends the neck towards the shoulder and turns face to opposite side
    • N: Accessory Nerve (11), Cervical Spinal Nerves C2-C3
  23. Sternocleidomastoid - Sternal Head
    • O: Attaches to Manubrium
    • I: Mastoid region of skull and lateral portion of superior nuchal line
    • A:Flex the neck along with sternal head; By itself it bends the neck towards the shoulder and turns face to opposite side
    • N: Accessory Nerve (11), Cervical Spinal Nerves C2-C3
  24. Splenius
    • O: Spinous processes and ligaments connecting inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae
    • I: Mastoid process, occipital bone of skull, superior cervical vertebrae
    • A: Extend neck; half of it at a time rotates and laterally flexes neck to the same side
    • N: Cervical Spinal Nerves
  25. Semisplenius Capitus
    • O: Processes of inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae
    • I: Occipital bone, between nuchal lines
    • A: Extend neck; half of it at a time laterally flexes neck and turns head to opposite sides
    • N: Cervical Spinal Nerves
  26. Thoracic Region - External Intercostals
    • O: Inferior border of each rib
    • I: Superior border of more inferior rib
    • A: Elevates ribs
    • N: Intercostal Nerves (Branches of Thoracic Spinal Nerves)
  27. Thoracic Region - Internal Intercostals
    • O: Superior border of each rib
    • I: Inferior border of the more superior rib
    • A: Depresses ribs
    • N: Intercostal Nerves (branches of Thoracic Spinal Nerves)
  28. Abdominal Region - External Oblique
    • O: External and inferior borders of ribs 5-12
    • I: External oblique aponeuroses extending ot the linea alba and iliac crest
    • A: Compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes, laterally flexes, or rotates vertebral column to the opposite side
    • N: Intercostal Nerves 5-12, Iliohypogastric, and Ilioinguinal Nerves
  29. Abodminal Region - Internal Obliques
    • O: Thoracolumbar fascia and iliac crest
    • I: Inferior surfaces of ribs 9-12, costal cartilages 8-10, linea alba, and pubis
    • A: Compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes, laterally flexes, or rotates vertebral column to the same side
    • N: Intercostal Nerves 5-12, Iliohypogastric, and Ilioinguinal Nerves
  30. Abdominal Region - Transversus Abdominus
    • O: Cartilages of Ribs 6-12, iliac crest, and thoracolumbar fascia
    • I: Linea alba and pubis
    • A: Compresses abdomen
    • N: Intercostal Nerves 5-12, Iliohypogastric, and Ilioinguinal Nerves
  31. Thoracic Region - Diaphragm
    • O: Xiphoid process, ribs 7-12 and associates costal cartilages, and anterior surfaces of lumbar vertebrae
    • I: Central tendinous sheet
    • A: Contraction expands thoracic cavity, compresses abdominopelvic cavity
    • N: Phrenic Nerves (C3-C5)
  32. Abdominal Region - Rectus Abdominis
    • O: Superior surface of pubis around symphysis
    • I: Inferior surfaces of cartilages (ribs 5-7) and xiphoid processes of sternum
    • A: Depresses ribs, flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen
    • N: Intercostal Nerves (T7-T12)
  33. Levator Scapulae
    • O: Transverse processes of first four cervical vertebrae
    • I: Vertebral border of scapula near superior angle
    • A: Elevates scapula
    • N: Cervical Nerves (C3-C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
  34. Pectoralis Minor
    • O: Anterior surfaces and superior margins of Ribs 3-5 and fascia covering the associated external intercostal muscles
    • I: Coracoid process of scapula
    • A: Depresses and protracts shoulder; rotates scapula so glenoid cavity moves inferiorly (downward rotation), elevates ribs if scapula is stationary
    • N: Medial Pectoral Nerve (C8, T1)
  35. Rhomboid Major
    • O: Spinous processes of superior thoracic vertebrae
    • I: Vertebral border of scapula from spine to inferior angle
    • A: Adducts and performs downward rotation of the scapula
    • N: Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5)
  36. Rhomboid Minor
    • O: Spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T1
    • I: Vertebral border of scapula
    • A: Adducts and performs downward rotation of the scapula
    • N: Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5)
  37. Serratus Anterior
    • O: Anterior and superior margins of ribs 1-8 OR 1-9
    • I: Anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula
    • A: Protracts shoulder; rotates scapula so glenoid cavity moves superiorly
    • N: Long Thoracic Nerve (C5-C7)
  38. Trapezius
    • O: Occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae
    • I: Clavicle and scapula (acromion and scapular spine)
    • A: Depends on active region and state of other muscles; may elevate, retract, depress, or rotate scapula upward and/or clavicle; can also extend neck
    • N: Accessory Nerve (11)
  39. Coracobrachialis
    • O: Coracoid process of scapula
    • I: Medial margin of shaft of humerus
    • A: Adduction and flexion at shoulder
    • N: Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5-C7)
  40. Deltoid
    • O: Clavicle and Scapula (acromion and adjacent scapular spine)
    • I: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • A: Whole Muscle - abduction of shoulder. Anterior part - flexion and medial rotation of humerus. Posterior part - extension and lateral rotation of humerus.
    • N: Axilary Nerve (C5-C6)
  41. Supraspinatus
    • O: Supraspinous process of scapula
    • I: Greater tubercle of humerus
    • A: Abduction at Shoulder
    • N: Suprascapular Nerve (C5)
  42. Infraspinatus
    • O: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
    • I: Greater tubercle of Humerus
    • A: Lateral rotation at shoulder
    • N: Suprascapular Nerve (C5-C6)
  43. Subscapularis
    • O: Subscapular fossa of Scapula
    • I: Lesser tubercle of Humerus
    • A: Medial rotation at shoulder
    • N: Subscapular Nerve (C5-C6)
  44. Teres Major
    • O: Inferior angle of Scapula
    • I: Medial lip of intertubercular sulcus of Humerus
    • A: Extension and medial rotation at shoulder
    • N: Lower subscapular nerve (C5-C6)
  45. Teres Minor
    • O: Lateral border of Scapula
    • I: Greater tubercle of Humerus
    • A: Lateral rotation and adduction at shoulder
    • N: Axillary Nerve (C5)
  46. Latissimus Dorsi
    • O: Spinous process of inferior thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae, ribs 8-12, and thoracolumbar fascia
    • I: Flor of intertubercular sulcus of the Humerus
    • A: Extension, adduction, and medial rotation at the shoulder
    • N: Thoracodorsal Nerve (C6-C8)
  47. Pectoralis Major
    • O: Cartilages of irbs 2-6, body of sternum, and inferior, medial portion of clavicle
    • I: Crest of greater tubercle and lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of Humerus
    • A: Flexion, adduction, and medial rotation at shoulder
    • N: Pectoral Nerves (C5-T1)
  48. Biceps Brachii - Short Head
    • O: Coracoid Process of Scapula
    • I: Radial Tuberosity
    • A: Flexion at the elbow and shoulder
    • N: Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5-C6)
  49. Biceps Brachii - Long Head
    • O: Supraglenoid Tubercle of Scapula
    • I: Radial Tuberosity
    • A: Supination
    • N: Musclocutaneous Nerve (C5-C6)
  50. Brachialis
    • O: Anterior, distal surface of Humerus
    • I: Ulnar Tuberosity
    • A: Flexion at the elbow
    • N: Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5-C6) and Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  51. Triceps Brachii - Lateral Head
    • O: Superior, lateral margin of Humerus
    • I: Olecranon of Ulna
    • A: Extension at the Elbow
    • N: Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  52. Triceps Brachii - Long Head
    • O: Infraglenoid tubercle of Scapula
    • I: Olecranon of Ulna
    • A: Extension at the elbow and extension and adduction at the shoulder
    • N: Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  53. Triceps Brachii - Medial Head
    • O: Posterior surface of Humerus, inferior to the radial groove
    • I: Olecranon of Ulna
    • A: Extension at the elbow
    • N: Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  54. Pronator Teres
    • O: Medial epicondyle of Humerus and Coracoid process of Ulna
    • I: Middle of lateral surface of Radius
    • A: Pronates forearm and hand by medial rotation of the Radius at radioulnar joints, flexion at the elbow
    • N: Median Nerve (C6-C7)
  55. Supinator
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of Humerus and ridge near radial notch of Ulna
    • I: Anterolateral surface of Radius distal to the radial tuberosity
    • A: Supinates forearm and hand by lateral rotation of Radius at radioulnar joints
    • N: Deep Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  56. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • O: Medial epicondyle of Humerus
    • I: Bases of second and third metacarpal bones
    • A: Fkexuib abd abduction at wrist
    • N: Median Nerve (C6-C7)
  57. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • O: Medial epicondyle of Humerus; adjacent medial surfaces of olecranon and anteromedial portion of Ulna
    • I: Pisiform, hamate, and base of fifth metacarpal bone
    • A: Flexion and abduction at wrist
    • N: Median Nerve (C6-C7)
  58. Palmaris Longus
    • O: Medial epicondyle of Humerus
    • I: Palmar aponeurosis and flexor retinaculum
    • A: Flexion at wrist
    • N: Median Nerve (C6-C7)
  59. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of Humerus
    • I: Base of second metacarpal bone
    • A: Extension and abduction at the wrist
    • N: Radial Nerve (C6-C7)
  60. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of Humerus
    • I: Base of third metacarpal bone
    • A: Extension and abduction at the wrist
    • N: Radial Nerve (C6-C7)
  61. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of Humerus; adjacent dorsal surface of Ulna
    • I: Base of fifth metacarpal bone
    • A: Extension and adduction at wrist
    • N: Deep Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  62. Extensor Digitorum
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of Humerus
    • I: Posterior surfaces of the phalanges, digits 2-5
    • A: Extension at finger joints and wrist
    • N: Deep Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  63. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    • O: Shaft of Radius distal to origin of abductor pollicis longus and the interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • A: Extension at joints of thumb; abduction at wrist
    • N: Deep Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  64. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    • O: Via extensor tendon to lateral epicondyle of Humerus and from intermuscular septa
    • I: Posterior surface of proximal phalanx of little finger
    • A: Extension at joints of little finger and extension at the wrist
    • N: Deep Radial Nerve (C6-C8)
  65. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • O: Medial epicondyle of Humerus; adjacent anterior surfaces of the Ulna and Radius
    • I: Bases of middle phalanges of digits 2-5
    • A: Flexion at proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, and wrist joints
    • N: Median Nerve (C7-T1)
  66. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • O: Medial and posterior surfaces of ulna, medial surfaces of coronoid process, and interosseous membrane
    • I: Bases of distal phalanges of digits 2-5
    • A: Flexion at distal interphalangeal joints, and proximal interphalangeal joints and wrists
    • N: Anterior Interosseous Branch of Median Nerve and Ulnar Nerve (C8-T1)
  67. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • O: Anterior shaft of Radius, interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of distal phalanx of thumb
    • A: Flexion at joints of the thumb
    • N: Median Nerve (C8-T1)
  68. Gluteus Maximus
    • O: Iliac crest, posterior gluteal line, and lateral surface of the Ilium; Sacrum, Coccyx, and Thoracolumbar fascia
    • I: Iliotibial tract and gluteal tuberosity of Femur
    • A: Extension and lateral rotation at hip; helps stabilize the extended knoee; abduction at the fip
    • N: Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5-S2)
  69. Gluteus Medius
    • O: Anterior iliac crest, lateral surface of Ilium between posterior and anterior gluteal lines
    • I: Greater trochanter of the Femur
    • A: Abduction and medial rotation at the hip
    • N: Superior Gluteal Nerve (L4-S1)
  70. Tensor Fasciae Latae
    • O: Iliac crest and lateral surface of anterior superior iliac spine
    • I: Iliotibial tract
    • A: Abduction and medial rotation at the hip; extension and lateral rotation at the knee; tenses fasciae latae, which laterally supports the knee
    • N: Superior Gluteal Nerve (L4-S1)
  71. Piriformis
    • O: Anterolateral surface of Sacrum
    • I: Greater trochanter of the Femur
    • A: Lateral rotation and abduction of the hip; helps maintain stability and integrity of the hip
    • N: Branches of Sacral Nerves (S1-S2)
  72. Adductor Longus
    • O: Inferior ramus of Pubis, anterior to adductor brevis
    • I: Linea aspera of Femur
    • A: Adduction, flexion, and medial rotation at the hip
    • N: Obturator Nerve (L3-L4)
  73. Adductor Magnus
    • O: Inferior ramus of Pubis posterior to adductor brevis and ischial tuberosity
    • I: Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of Femur
    • A: Whole Muscle - adduction of the hip. Anterior Part - flexion and medial rotation of the hip. Posterior Part - extension of the hip.
    • N: Obturator and Sciatic Nerves (L3-L4 and S1-S3)
  74. Gracilis
    • O: Inferior ramus of Pubis
    • I: Medial surface of tibia inferior to medial condyle
    • A: Flexion and medial rotation at the knee; adduction and medial rotation at the hip
    • N: Obturator Nerve (L3-L4)
  75. Iliacus
    • O: Iliac fossa
    • I: Fermur distal to lesser trochanter; tendon fused with that of psoas major
    • A: Flexion at the hip and/or lumbar intervertebral joints
    • N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L3)
  76. Psoas Major
    • O: Anterior surfaces and tranverse processes of vertebrae (T12-L5)
    • I: Lesser trochanter in company with iliacus (on Femur)
    • A: Flexion at the hip and/or lumbar intervertebral joints
    • N: Branchesof the lumbar plexus (L2-L3)
  77. Biceps Femoris
    • O: Ischial tuberosity and linea aspera of Femur
    • I: Head of Fibula, lateral condyle of Tibia
    • A: Flexion at the knee and extension and lateral rotation at the hip
    • N: Sciatic nerve- the tibial portion (S1-S3) and Common Fibular Branch (L5-S2)
  78. Semimembranosus
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Posterior surface of medial condyle of Tibia
    • A: Flexion at the knee; extension and medial rotation at the hip
    • N: Sciatic nerve- the tibial portion (L5-S2)
  79. Semitendinous
    • O: Ischial Tuberosity
    • I: Proximal, medial surface of Tibia near the insertion of the Gracilis
    • A: Flexion at the knee; extension and medial rotation at the hip
    • N: Sciatic Nerve (Tibial portion L5-S2)
  80. Sartorius
    • O: Anterior superior iliac spine
    • I: Medial surface of Tibia, near tibial tuberosity
    • A: Flexion at the knee; abduction, flexion, and lateral rotation at the hip
    • N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  81. Rectus Femoris
    • O: Anterior inferior iliac spine and superior acetabular rim of ilium
    • I: Tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
    • A: Extension at the knee; flexion at the hip
    • N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  82. Vastus Intermedius
    • O: Anterolateral surface of Femur and linea aspera
    • I: Tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
    • A: Extension at the knee
    • N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  83. Vastus Lateralis
    • O: Anterior and inferior to greater torchanter of Femur and along linea aspera
    • I: Tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
    • A: Extension at the knee
    • N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  84. Vastus Medialis
    • O: Entire length of linea aspera of Femur
    • I: Tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
    • A: Extension at the knee
    • N: Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  85. Tibialis Anterior
    • O: Lateral condyle and proximal shaft of Tibia
    • I: Base of first metatarsal bone and medial cuneiform
    • A: Dorsiflexion at the ankle and inversion of the foot
    • N: Deep Fibular Nerve (L4-S1)
  86. Gastrocnemius
    • O: Femoral condyles
    • I: Cancaneus via cancaneal tendon
    • A: Plantar flexion at the ankle and flexion at the knee
    • N: Tibial Nerve (S1-S2)
  87. Fibularis Brevis
    • O: Midlateral margin of Fibula
    • I: Base of fifth metatarsal bone
    • A: Eversion of foot and plantar flexion at the ankle
    • N: Superficial Fibular Nerve (L4-S1)
  88. Fibularis Longus
    • O: Head and proximal shaft of Fibula
    • I: Base of fifth metatarsal bone
    • A: Eversion of foot and plantar flexion at the ankle; supports ankle; supports longitudinal and transverse arches
    • N: Superficial Fibular Nerve (L4-S1)
  89. Soleus
    • O: Head and proximal shaft of Fibule, and adjacent posteromedial shaft of Tibia
    • I: Cancaneus via cancaneal tendon
    • A: Plantar flexion at the ankle and postural muscle when standing
    • N: Tibial Nerve (L4-S1) and Sciatic Nerve, Tibial Branch (S1-S2)
  90. Tibialis Posterior
    • O: Interosseous membrane and adjacent shafts of Tibia and Fibula
    • I: Navicular, all three cuneiforms, cuboid, second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones
    • A: Inversion of the foot and plantar flexion at the ankle
    • N: Tibial Nerve (L4-S1) and Sciatic Nerve, Tibial Branch (S1-S2)
  91. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    • O: Posteromedial surface of tibia
    • I: Inferior surface of distal phalanges, toes 2-5
    • A: Flexion of joints of toes 2-5 and plantar flexes ankle
    • N: Tibial Branch (L5-S1)
  92. Flexor Hallucis Longus
    • O: Posterior surface of Fibula
    • I: Inferior surface, distal phalanx of great toe
    • A: Flexion at joints of great toe; plantar flexes ankle
    • N: Tibial Branch (L5-S1)
  93. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    • O: Lateral condyle of Tibia, anterior surface of Fibula
    • I: Superior surfaces of phalanges, toes 2-5
    • A: Extension of toes 2-5; dorsiflexes ankle
    • N: Deep Fibular Nerve (L5,S1)
  94. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    • O: Anterior surface of Fibula
    • I: Superior surface, distal phalanx of great toe
    • A: Extension at joints of great toe; dorsiflexes ankle
    • N: Deep Fibular Nerve (L5, S1)

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