-first subject has to breath to FRC, then equilibrate.
Equation for minute ventilation
Physiological dead space (Vd)
sum of alveolar and anatomical dead space.
the difference between minute and alveolar ventilation is the dead space ventilation that is wasted.
Types of alveolar ventilation (ventilation has to be considered with respect to metabolism).
normal: Va matches CO2, keep PaCO2 at constant level.
hyperventilation: more O2 supply, more CO2 removed than necessary. PaO2 rises, PaCO2 decreases.
hypoventilation: less O2 supply, less CO2 removal, PaO2 falls and PaCO2 rises. severe disorders of the lungs or damage to respiratory muscles. injured chest cage, collapsed lung and depressed central nervous system.
law of diffusion. you know what this is.
Which is more soluble between CO2 and O2?
CO2 is more soluble than O2 and it diffuses 20 times faster.
blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation is lower than in the systemic circulation.
walls of the pulmonary capillaries are thinner than those of similar vessels in the systemic circulation.
blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation falls gradually during disastole to a low of about 8 mmHg as blood flows through the pulmonary capillaries.
mean pulmonary arterial pressure is 15 mmHg while the left atrial pressure is about 5 mmHg.
pulmonary resistance is only 1/10 that of systemic circulation. thin walls.