Child Development - Chapter 1 key terms

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Child Development - Chapter 1 key terms
2014-01-19 22:22:27
developing person
Child Development
Chapter 1 - The Developing person through the life span 7th edition - key terms
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  1. Dynamic-Systems Theory
    A view of human development as always changing. Life is the product of ongoing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society. Flux is constant, and each change affects all the others.
  2. Ecological-systems approach
    a vision of how human development should be studied, with the person considered in all contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
  3. Butterfly effect
    The idea that a small effect or thing can have a large impact if it happens to tip the balance, causing other changes that create a major event.
  4. cohort
    a group of people who were born at about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.
  5. socioeconomic status (SES)
    A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors.
  6. Ethnic group
    People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion.
  7. Race
    A group of people who are regarded (by themselves and others) as genetically distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance.
  8. Social construction
    An idea that is built more on shared perceptions than on objective reality. Many age-related terms, such as childhood, adolescence, yuppies, and senior citizens are social constructions
  9. Mirror Neurons
    Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else, as if the observer had done that action. For example, the brains of dancers who witness another dancer moving onstage are activated in the same movement areas as would be activated if they themselves did that dance step, because their mirror neurons reflect the activity.
  10. Scientific Method
    A way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data-based conclusions.
  11. Hypothesis
    A specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted
  12. replication
    the repetition of a scientific study, using the same procedures on a similar (but not identical) group of participants, in order to verify, refine, or dispute the original study's conclusions.
  13. scientific observation
    a method of testing hypotheses by unobtrusively watching and recording participants' behavior in a systematic and objective manner, either in a laboratory or in a natural setting.
  14. Experiment
    A research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between two variables by manipulating one variable (called the independent variable) and then observing and recording the resulting changes in the other variable (called the dependent variable).
  15. Independent variable
    In an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable (also called the experimental variable).
  16. Dependent Variable
    In an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds. In other words, the dependent variable depends on the independent variable.
  17. Experimental Group
    A group of participants in a research study who experience some special treatment or condition (the independent variable).
  18. Comparison group/Control group
    A group of participants in a research study who are similar to the experimental group in all relevant ways but who do not experience the experimental condition (the independent variable)
  19. Survey
    A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means.
  20. Case Study
    A research method in which one individual is studied intensively.
  21. cross-sectional research
    a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics
  22. Longitudinal research
    A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.
  23. cross-sequential research
    a hybrid research method in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (a longitudinal approach) (Also called cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research)
  24. correlation
    A number indicating the degree of relationship between two variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will (or will not) occur when the other variable does (or does not). A correlation is not an indication that one variable causes the other, only that the two variable are related to the indicated degree.
  25. Quantitative reserach
    research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales
  26. qualitative research
    research that considers qualities instead of quantities. Descriptions of particular conditions and participants' expressed ideas are often part of qualitative studies.
  27. Code of ethics
    a set of moral principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow