Bio2011 Midterm 1 pt.2

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bananavocado
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257544
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Bio2011 Midterm 1 pt.2
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2014-01-23 21:40:44
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Bio2011 Midterm pt
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Bio2011 Midterm 1 pt.2
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  1. Homeostatic Imbalances : Osteomalacia
    • - Bones poorly mineralized.
    • - Calcium salts not adequate.
    • - Soft, weak bones.
    • - Pain upon bearing weight.
  2. Homeostatic Imbalances : Rickets
    • a.k.a osteomalacia of children.
    • - Bowed legs and other bone deformities 
    • - Bones ends enlarged and abnormally long
    • - Caused: vitamin D deficiency and insufficient dietary calcium.
  3. Homeostatic Imbalances : Osteoporosis
    • - group of diseases 
    • - Bone resorption outpaces deposit. 
    • - spongy bone of spine and neck of femur most susceptible. 
    • • common vertebral and hip fractures common.
  4. Risk factors for Osteoporosis?
    • - Most often aged, postmenopausal women. 
    • 30% : 60-70 years ; 70% : by age 80
    • - Men to lesser degree
    • - Sex hormones maintain normal bone health and density. 
    • - Petite body form
    • - Insufficient exercise to stress bones.
    • - Diet poor in calcium and protein. 
    • - Smoking 
    • - Hormone - related conditions
    • - Immobility
    • - Males with prostate cancer taking androgen suppressing drugs.
  5. How do you treat Osteoporosis?
    • - Calcium
    • - Vitamin D supplements 
    • - Weight-bearing exercise.
    • - Hormone replacement therapy.
  6. How do you prevent Osteoporosis?
    • - Plenty of calcium in diet in early adulthood. 
    • - Reduce carbonated beverage and alcohol consumption b/c it leaches minerals from bone so it decreases bone density.
    • - Plenty of weight-bearing exercise which will increase bone mass above normal.
  7. What is the skeletal system composed of?
    Makes up how much percent of body mass?
    There are two parts?
    • - bones, cartilages, joints, ligaments.
    • - 20%
    • - Axial and Appendicular.
  8. What are the three major regions for the axial skeleton?
    • - Skull
    • - Vertebral column
    • - Thoracic cage
  9. The skull is formed by two sets of bones. What are they?
    • - Cranial bones (cranium) which encloses the brain in the cranial cavity. Comes with the cranial vault called calvaria and cranial base called anterior middle, and posterior cranial fossae. 
    • - Facial bones forms the framework of the face
  10. What are the pectoral girdles composed of? What is its purpose?
    • - Clavicles and scapulae.
    • - Attaches the upper limbs to axial skeleton and provides attachment sites for muscles that move upper limbs.
  11. What is The Upper Limb composed of?
    • - 30 bones 
    • - Arm (Humerus)
    • - Forearm (Radius and Ulna)
    • - Hand : (8 carpal bones in the wrist) (5 metacarpal bones in the palm) (14 phalanges in the fingers)
  12. What is the Pelvic (Hip) Girdle composed of and why?
    - What are the three fused bones called?
    - What is the bony pelvic formed by?
    • - Two hip bones (coxal bones or os coxae) and sacrum which attaches lower limbs to axial skeleton with strong ligaments. This transmits weight of upper body to lower limbs. Supports pelvic organs. 
    • - Loss mobility but more stable than shoulder joints.
    • - Three fused bones : ilium, ischium, pubis.
    • - Bony pelvis formed by coxal bones, sacrus and cockyx. 
  13. Female pelvis
    • - adapted for childbearing.
    • - True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal.
    • - Cavity of true pelvis is broad, shallow and has greater capacity.
  14. Male pelvis
    • - tilted less far forward
    • - adapted for support of male's heavier build and stronger muscles.
    • - cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep.
  15. who's is who
  16. What's the purpose of the lower limb?
    • - carries the entire weight of erect body.
    • - Subjected to exceptional forces if jump or run.
    • - Three segments of lower limb: Thigh, Leg, and Foot.
  17. What composes the bones of the thigh?
    • - Femur: largest and strongest bone in the body. length is 1/4 of person's height. Articulates proximally with acetabulum of hip and distally with tibia and patella. 
    • - Patella : Sesamoid bone in quadriceps tendon.
  18. What composes the bones of the leg?
    • - Tibia : medial leg bone. Receives weight of body from femur; transmits to the foot.
    • - Fibula : not weight bearing; no articulation with femur. Several muscles originate from the fibula and articulates proximally and distally with tibia.
  19. Which membrane connects the tibia and fibula together?
    Interosseous membrane.
  20. What is articulation (anatomical sense?).
    - site where two or more bones meet.
  21. What are the functions of the bone and what are the two classifications? How are they based on? What are the three structural classifications?
    • - Gives skeleton mobility and holds skeleton together. 
    • - Classified by functional and structural.
    • - based on material binding bones together and the presence/absence of joint cavity.
    • - Fibrous joints; cartilaginous joints; synovial joints.
  22. What are fibrous joints? What are the three types and define
    • - Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue. 
    • - No joint cavity
    • - Most are relatively immovable which depends on length of connective tissue fibers. 
    • - Three types : Sutures, Syndesmoses, Gomphoses
  23. Go into detail about Fibrous joints : Sutures
    • - Rigid, interlocking joints.
    • - Immovable joints for protection of brain.
    • - Contain short connective tissue fibers
    • - Allows for growth during youth
    • - Ossifies and fuses in middle age. 
  24. Go into detail about Fibrous joints : Syndesmoses
    • - Bones connected by ligaments (bands of fibrous tissue) 
    • - Fiber length varies so movements varies
  25. Go into detail about Fibrous joints : Gomphoses
    • - Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets. 
    • - Fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament.
  26. Define cartilaginous joints and what are the two types?
    • - Bones united by cartilage
    • - No joint cavity
    • - Not highly movable
    • - Two types : Synchondroses and Symphyses
  27. Cartilaginous joints : synchondroses
    • - Bar/plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones by temporary epiphyseal plate joints and Cartilage of 1st rib with manubrium.
  28. Cartilaginous joints : Symphyses
    • - Fibrocartilage unites bone 
    • - Strong, flexible, some movement. 
  29. What are synovial joints and name all 6 of them.
    • - Bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity.
    • - All are fully moveable. 
    • - Includes all limb joints; most joints of body. 
    • (Plane, Hinge, Pivot, Condylar, Saddle and Ball-and-socket)
  30. Name this Synovial joint : 
    Plane joint
  31. Name this Synovial joint :  
    Hinge Joint
  32. Name this Synovial joint : 
    Pivot joint
  33. Name this Synovial joint : 
    Condylar joint
  34. Name this Synovial joint : 
    Saddle Joint
  35. Name this Synovial joint : 
    Ball and socket joint

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