History: Chapter 19 and 20
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What is Demobilization?
Shift from wartime to peace time
What were the effects of demobilization?
- 4 Million soldiers return home.
- Women and African Americans are urged to give up jobs
- Many Gov. contracts were cancelled
How was labor affected by the end of WWI?
- Workers wanted higher wages and shorter hours
- Management ignored workers demands
- Strikes resulted
Why were workers' demands ignored after the war?
Factories were not producing goods for the war effort
What was the result of the Seattle General Strike?
Turned public opinion against organized labor union
Describe the events of the Boston Police Strike
- Boston police attempt to unionize
- The police commissioner Edwin Curtis refused to recognize the union
- The police go on strike
- He hires a whole new force of scabs who then received better working conditions
Explain how union membership was affected by the labor strife of the Post War Era?
- They were granted:
- Higher Pay
- Better working conditions
- And additional holidays
Who were the Bolsheviks?
Communist Party ran by Vladimir Lenin
How did Bolshevism create the Red Scare in America?
Bolsheviks scared American into thinking communism was spreading. (Labor Conflicts)
Was the Bolshevik infiltration of America a realistic one? Explain
- No because in actuality the communists and socialists made up a tiny % of the American population.
- But Americans perceived that Reds were everywhere.
Who was A. Mitchell Palmer?
Attorney General against American Radicals
Which government agency was created to gather information on radical activity?
Who was put in charge of the FBI?
J. Edgar Hoover
What were the Palmer Raids?
FBI who raided suspected communists and deported them
Who did the Palmer Raids target?
How did Palmer justify the violation of the people's civil liberties?
He felt that American Civil liberties were less important than rooting out potential wrong doers.
Why were Sacco and Vanzetti convicted robbery and murder and eventually executed?
They were radicals and immigrants.
Who did the KKK target during the 1920's?
Jews, Catholics, and Radicals
What affect did the Post war era have on consumerism?
Americans were ready to spend the money they didn't have during the war
Describe the impact of the Henry Ford's Assembly Line
Car could be produced more rapidly thus lowering the prices
How did Automobiles change Society?
People could get to places quicker and spread the population to the suburbs.
Describe the Credit System and Installment Buying
Buy now, pay later
What affect did the Credit System and Installment Buying have on American life?
How were Americans targeted by advertisements?
- Pop Psychology Methods
- (ex: Radio)
How was the 18th Amendment enforced?
The Volstead Act
Why was the Prohibition a failure?
- Organized Crime
Which amendment repealed the 18th Amendment in 1933?
Define Fundamentalism and name one supporter
- Belief in the literal interpretation of the Bible
- Billy Sunday
Why was John Scopes found guilty?
He was accused of teaching evolution instead of creation
What was the Scopes Trial really about?
Fundamentalism vs. Evolution
Who represented the defense and prosecution in the Scopes Trial?
- Defense: Clarence Darrow
- Prosecution: William Jennings Bryan
What was the significance of the Scopes Trial?
It showed the first signs of the United States moving away from being a Christian Society
18-30 Year old women who defied the traditional social norms of women during the 20's?
What were the characteristics of the Flappers?
- Short hair
- Knee Length dresses
- Lots of Makeup
- Drove Cars
What was the impact of the Flapper generation?
Female declaration of independence
Identify two FADS of the 1920's
- Flag pole sitting
- Crossword Puzzles
What was the impact of the Great Migration
Jobs and Freedom
Period in Harlem that celebrated African American musicians, writers, and artists?
The Harlem Renaissance
African American Activist who helped find the NAACP?
Greatest Jazz Musician that wrote What a Wonderful World
Wrote "The Weary Blues"
One of the most famous Harlem Renaissance writers/poets
Explain Black Nationalism and Marcus Garvey's theories?
- Blacks would be better off in an area of only black people.
- (White racism)
This lost generation writer wrote of his war experiences during WWI
Wrote of the young and wealthy during the 1920's
He was the "Sultan of Swat"
Who was Charles Lindbergh
The first person to fly solo across the Atlantic
First woman to fly across the Atlantic?
Silent film star known for wearing a derby hat
What was Warren G. Harding's campaign slogan in the 1920 election?
"Back to Normalcy"
What were Harding's two economic goals?
- Reduce the national debt
- Promote economic growth
Who was the Ohio Gang?
Harding's friends who held the lower level government positions that they were not qualified for, but became very rich from.
Describe the Teapot Dome Scandal
Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall, took in bribes from private oil companies for the rights to drill on government land
Why did Calvin Coolidge appeal to Americans?
and what was his nickname?
- Serious and straight forward.
- More pro-business
- Believed less government interference in business
- (Nickname: "Silent Cal")
What was the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act?
High taxes on imported farm goods to attempt to make people buy U.S. farm goods instead
How did the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act hurt farmers more than help them?
It didn't make the imported goods very high. They were still cheaper than American goods.
Which two groups did not benefit from Harding's and Coolidge's Republican policies?
Labor and Farming
What were the lingering effects of WWI?
- U.S. becomes a banker for Europe
- Germany cannot pay their war debts and must borrow money from the U.S.
- We didn't join the League of Nations
Define the Kellogg-Briand Pact
Outlawed the use of war to solve problems
Why was the Kellogg-Briand Pact unrealistic?
- There was no way to enforce it.
- The only thing holding nations to their promise was their word.
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