Chapter 10 Key Terms

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  1. Motivation
    the force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do
  2. Instinct
    an innate (unlearned) biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout species
  3. Drive
    an aroused state that occurs because of physiological need
  4. Need
    a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation
  5. Homeostasis
    the body’s tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or a steady state
  6. Yerkes-Dodson Law
    when performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal
  7. Overlearning
    learning to perform a task so well that it becomes automatic.
  8. Set Point
    the weight maintained when the individual makes no effort to gain or lose weight.
  9. Anorexia Nervosa
    an eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
  10. Bulimia Nervosa
    an eating disorder in which an individual (typically female) consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern.
  11. Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
    characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating.
  12. Hierarchy of Needs
    states that must be satisfied in the following sequence: physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization
  13. Self-actualization
    the highest and most elusive of Maslow’s needs, is the motivation to develop one’s full potential as a human being
  14. Self-determination Theory
    asserts that there are three basic organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy
  15. Intrinsic Motivation
    based on internal factors such as organismic needs (competence, relatedness, and autonomy), as well as curiosity, challenge, and fun
  16. Extrinsic Motivation
    involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments
  17. Self-regulation
    the process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives.
  18. Emotion
    feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace)
  19. Polygraph
    a lie detector
  20. James-Lange Theory
    states that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.

    Proposes that after the initial perception, the experience of the emotion results from the perception of one’s own physiological changes.
  21. Cannon-Bard Theory
    the proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
  22. Two-factor Theory of Emotion
    developed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, states that emotion is determined by two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
  23. Facial Feedback Hypothesis
    states that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them.
  24. Display Rules
    are sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
  25. Negative Affect
    refers to emotions such as anger, guilt, and sadness
  26. Positive Affect
    refers to emotions such as joy, happiness, and interest.
  27. Broaden-and Build Model
    Fredrickson’s model of positive emotion, stating that the function of positive emotions lies in their effects on an individual's attention and ability to build resources.
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Chapter 10 Key Terms
2014-01-21 01:16:26

Psychology Chapter 10 Definitions
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