A condition of the pericardium where a build up of fluid in the potential space does not allow the heart to expand normally between contractions.
A condition of ruminants where metal objects that have been swallowed penetrate through the reticulum into the thoracic cavity, through the diaphragm and into the pericardium causing damage and infection.
Traumatic Reticular Pericarditis
This condition describe any inflammation and or infection of the lining of the valve and endothelium of the heart
This is a type of endocarditis seen primarily in porcine and turkeys and has characteristic diamond shaped lesions on the skin
This refers to an infectious disease associated with streptococci in the body that results in inflammation in the heart valves and was a common killer of children
Rheumatic Fever Etiology
Name the atrioventricular valves:
Tricuspid Valve (3 cusps)
Mitral Valve (2 cusps)
Valves and their location during auscultation
Start about 1/3 of the way up.
Pulmonic - 3rd/4th intercostal space
Aortic - 4th/5th intercostal space
Mitral - 5th/6th intercostal space
Tricuspid - 4th/5th intercostal space
Name the Semilunar Valves:
Pulmonary - (3 cusps)
Aortic - (3 cusps)
Another name for the Semilunar valves:
Structures that contain valves:
This system circulates blood through the lungs and its pressure originates from the right ventricle.
This carries blood returned from the lungs to all areas of the body.
This is the smallest terminations of the air passages.
This is a system that departs from the usual pattern of circulation
These are the vessels that parallel the vein and carry wastes that are too large to move into the venules.
This is the name given to the fluid in the lymphatic system
Which vein does the lymphatic system ultimately empty into where it rejoins the vein-arterial circulation?
What cells do the lymph nodes produce
Lymphocytes that become T cell or plasma cells
5 lymph nodes locations we palpate
Parotid - just under the ear
Mandibular - under the ramus of the mandible
Superficial Cervical - apex of the scapula
Popliteal - behind stifle
Another name for the Superficial Cervical lymph node
Axillary lymph node
Another name for the Medial Femoral lymph node
Inguinal lymph node
Which fluid circulates through the spleen?
What is the function of the white pulp of the spleen?
What is the function of the red pulp of the spleen?
Lymphocyte filtration and removal
What is the 3rd function of the spleen?
Collects and lyses old red blood cells.
note: these cells can be dumped back into circulation via splenic contraction during a time of "fight or flight"
This initiates the frequency of contraction in the heart
Sino-Atrial Node (SA node)
This is an arrangement of muscle fibers in the lower area of the atria that fuse to form an interconnected mass
This is an arrangement of muscle fibers in the upper area of the ventricles that fuse to form an interconnected mass
What is the function of the syncytia?
Both syncytia are separated by a fibrous ring that acts as an insulator so that impulses are not conducted from the atria to the ventricles. Instead they ensure that the impulse moves through the AV node
Canine RBC life span
Feline RBC life span
Conduction of the heart
SA node initiates impulse
Impulse travels through internodal pathways in the atria
Impulse pauses at the AV node
Then travels down the bundle of His located in the interventricular septum to the apex
Impulse continues up the walls of the ventricles through the purkinjie fibers
Unique structures of the heart
bundle of His
This is the relaxation of a heart chamber prior to and during filling of a chamber
This is the contraction of the heart in the process of emptying
This refers to the one way flow of blood from venous side to arterial side due to the operation of the four cardiac valves.
This refers to the sequence of events that occur during one complete heartbeat
Cardiac Cycle Sequence
Atria fill from incoming blood through pulmonary vein and vena cavas
AV valves (Tricuspid and Mitral) open d/t to atrial pressure > ventricular pressure - atria contract
About 70% of the blood flows into the filling ventricles while about 30% backs up into the pulmonary vein and venae cavae
Ventricles contract closing the AV valves (Lub) which allows the atria to relax/fill
The semilunar valves (pulmonic and aortic) open from increase pressure in the ventricles
Blood is ejected into the pulmonary artery and aorta
As the ventricles relax the pa and aorta contract and the pressure and blood backup close the semilunar valves (dup)
This is where the pressure equals the tension developed by the ventricle wall contraction divided by the sum of the 2 radii curvatures in cm.
Energy and O2 demands of the heart depend on:
tension and its relation to the force of myocaridal contractions
This is the INSTRUMENT that makes a recording of the voltage changes of the heart
This is the wave for RECORDING of the voltages changes of the heart
This represents the depolarization of the atria on an ECG
This represents the ventricular repolarization on an ECG
This represents the depolarization of the ventricles and repolarization of the atria on an ECG
This is the distance from the beginning of the P-wave to the QRS complex
This is the distance from the ending of the QRS complex to the beginning of the T-wave
Lymphatic circulation time
Systemic circulation time
Why do CO2 and O2 readily diffuse across simple squamous endothelial layer without having to use the intercellular clefts?
They are both lipophilic
This is a combination of bacteria and glycoproteins on teeth
This is the combination of bacteria with a small amount of mineralization on teeth
This is the combination of bacteria with heavy mineralization on teeth
Discovered penicillin in 1927
Dr. Alexander Fleming
This is refers how the vertical and horizontal wave distances are measure on and ECG
vertical measurement in millivolts
horizontal measurement in milliseconds (intervals between waves)
This is considered the 1st heart sound and represents the closure of the atrioventricular valves and the contraction of the ventricles
Lub - lower pitch, louder and longer duration
This is considered the 2nd heart sound and represents the closure of the semilunar valves and arterial contraction of the aorta and the pulmonary artery
Dup - higher pitch, softer and shorter duration
This is ANY abnormal heart sound
This is a sharp dip in aortic pressure that indicates the end of ventricular systole and the beginning of ventricular diastole
This represents the volume of blood flow from either ventricle of an animal during a given period and is considered the product of stroke volume x the pulse
Cardiac Output - usually 60 seconds
This refers to the sum of the volume of blood pumped from both ventricles over a period of time
Total Cardiac Output - usually 60 seconds
This is the point at which the heart beats too fast which reduces the stroke volume which reduces the cardiac output
Starling's Law (named for Frank Starling)
This is the frequency of cardiac cycles and is usually measured by the number of beats per minute.
Heart Rate = Pulse
Why do small/female animals tend to have a higher heart rate than large/male animals?
Surface area and weight density
Why do younger animals tend to have a higher heart rate than older animals?
Less vagal tone inhibition development
This is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
Pulse Pressure (PP)= sys - dia
Mean Arterial Pressure = Dia + 1/3(PP)
Mean Blood Pressure - another name for MAP
What percentage of the blood composition is water?
These are heavier, temperature tolerant fluids with larger molecules that remain in the blood with raises blood pressure quickly
Examples of colloids:
These are water-like fluids that are designed to increase the volume of fluid in the body
Examples of crystalloids:
Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
This type of blood pressure measurement requires catheterization of a peripheral artery but is more accurate
This type of blood pressure measurement is far more practical use today and has 2 primary methods.
doppler - systolic pressure only
Doppler Blood Pressure monitor
1. Shave an area under carpus or tarsus
2. Place appropriate cuff above shaved area
3. Attach sphygmomanometer
4. Place small amount of ultrasound gel on convex side of probe
5. Place probe on shaved area - gel side down
6. Find artery = swooshing sound
7. Tape probe into place
8. Squeeze sphygmomanometer until artery sound disappears
9. Slowly release pressure until the first sound returns
10. The point at which the sound returns is the systolic pressure
11. Repeat 5 times to get an average number
What are the 4 types of shock?
hypovolemic shock - loss of fluid in the body
This is a palpation technique once used in veterinary medicine to determine pregnancy
Components of the Cardiac Exam
1. Observation of Respiratory pattern
2. Mucous Membrane/Capillary Refill Time
3. Jugular Vein - indicate central venous pressure. An increase = Caval Syndrome
4. Arterial Pulse - femoral artery most common
5. Precordium - chest palpation
6. Evaluation for fluid accumulation
Bovine abdominal observations
Left side enlargement = bloat
Right side enlargement = pregnancy
How does a doppler detect sound?
The probe is a transducer that emits high-frequency sound waves. A pulse from an artery changes the frequency. That change is sent to the instrument box that contains another transducer that changes that sound and amplifies it so it can be heard.
This is a device that translates one physical quantity to another
Another name for the pressure gauge
What is the purpose of the blood pressure cuff?
It occludes the artery and stops the flow of blood momentarily. As the pressure is release the blood pressure can be measured
Advantages of Doppler monitoring
Disadvantages of Doppler monitoring
All are due to the inability to measure diastolic pressure.
1. Pulse pressure cannot be determined without diastole
2. MAP cannot be determined
3. Without diastolic pressure, true hypo/hypertension cannot be determined
Canine position for non-anesthetized blood pressure monitoring
What is the ideal percentage the cuff should be relative to the circumference of the limb at the site of placement?
Why is standing not a good position for non-anesthetic blood pressure monitoring?
Muscle movement can interfere with readings
A cuff that is too wide will give what kind of reading?
A cuff that is not wide enough will give what kind of readings?
higher readings and/or will result in velcro disengaging.
3 factors that can affect blood pressure in non-anesthetized monitoring
anxiety resulting in struggling
natural movement of limbs
pressure of the cuff width if less than 40%
Techniques to minimize "white coat" effect
1. allow animal to acclimate to the room
2. room should be kept quite and away from the waiting room
3. have the owner in the room
4. use minimal restraint
This is the most common complication of anesthesia