Text Exam I. 1

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Text Exam I. 1
2014-01-22 08:17:32
Plant Kingdom
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  1. I.                    Bacteria
    a.       __major groups of Bacteria, ranging from __ that __to __ such as cyanobacteria and purple and green bacteria

    II. Cyanobacteria: Important from Ecological and Evolutionary Views
    a. Partake in the global __ and __ and represent one of the major evolutionary lines of Bacteria
    • 17 
    • extreme thermophilic chemosynthetic autotrophs
    • oxidize gaseous hydrogen or reduce sulfur compounds 
    • photosynthetic autotrophs
    • carbon and nitrogen cycles
  2. a.       Photosynthetic cyanobacteria have __, together with __and accessory pigments called __(two kinds)
                                                                  i.      What are they?

    b.      Cells of cyanobacteria have several __, __to each other
                                                                  i.      These membranes are __ that resemble those found in chloroplasts—and, in fact chloroplasts correspond in size to an entire cyanobacterial cell
    1.       The main storage product of cyanobacteria is __
    • chlorophyll a
    • carotenoids 
    • phycobilins 
    • Phyocoerythrin: red                                       Phycocyanin: blue
    • membrane layers
    • parallel 
    • photosynthetic thylakoids
    • glycogen
  3. a.       Many cyanobacteria produce a __that bidns groups of cells/ filaments together
                                                                  i.      Colors of the sheaths in different species __
    1.       “blue-green algae” are not __and are about __
    b.      They may often form __and grow in large amsses 1 m or more in length
                                                                  i.      Some are __, some have __, and few have __
    • mucilaginous envelope (sheath; deeply pigmented) 
    • vary (are light gold, yellow, brown, etc. )
    • algae 
    • half blue-green
    • filaments 
    • unicellular
    • branched filaments
    • plates/ irregular colonies
  4. 1. Division--> subunits separate to __

    a. Cells of cyanobacteria are joined only by __ or __, so that each cell leads an __life
    ii. Some filamentous cyanobacteria are __, doing what?
    1. Some segments called __break off from a cy. Colony and glide away from their parent colony at rapid rates
    • form new colonies
    • their walls or by mucilaginous sheaths
    • independent 
    • motile
    • gliding and rotating around the longitudinal axis
    • hormogonia
  5. a.       This movement may be connected with the __  through small pores in the cell wall, together with the production of __ in one of the surface layers of the wall
                                                                                                                                          i.      Some cyanobacteria exhibit __
    • extrusion of mucilage
    • contractile waves
    • intermittent jerky movements
  6.  b.      Where They Live
                                                                  i.      Despite the ‘7500’ species, there may be as few as __
                                                                ii.      Like other bacteria, they sometimes grow under very __ (hot springs, arctics, etc./ not in acidic places)
                                                              iii.      Layered chalk deposits called __ (2.7 billion years) are produced when colonies of cyanobacteria bind __
    • 200 distinct, free-living nonsymbiotic species
    • inhospitable conditions
    • stromatolites
    • calcium-rich sediments
  7. 1.       Today, they are in only a few places
    a.       Yet, their presence indicates what?
                                                                                                                                          i.      Most ancient ones were probably made by __
    • that such environments were prevalent in the past, when cyanobacteria played the decisive role in elevating the level of free oxygen in the atmosphere of the early Earth
    • purple and green bacteria
  8.                                                               i.      Many marine cyanobacteria occur in __, like coralline algae and the shells of mollusks
                                                                ii.      Some freshwater species of cy. often deposit thick layers of __in their colonies. 
    • limestone or lime-rich substrates
    • lime
  9. a.       Cyanobacterial Formation of Gas Vesicles, Heterocysts, and Akinetes
                                                                  i.      The cells of cy. living in freshwater or marine habitats—especially plankton (on the surface)—commonly contain bright, irregularly shaped structures called __, which do what, thus allowing what? 
    • gas vesicles
    • provide and regulate the buoyancy of the organisms, thus allowing them to float at certain levels in the water
  10. 1.       When several cy. can’t regulate __ properly (maybe due to fluctuating temps), they may __ and __
    a.       Some cy. that form __secrete __ that are toxic to other organisms and cause death
                                                                ii.      Many genera of cy. can __[which is available for biological reactions])
    • gas vesicles
    • float to the surface of the water
    • form visible masses called blooms
    • blooms
    • chemical substances
    • fix nitrogen (nitrogenà ammonium
  11.                                                               i.      In filamentous cy., the __ often occurs with __, which are specialized, enlarged cells
    1.       Surrounded by what?
    2.       Within a __, the cell’s internal membranes are reorganized into a __
    • nitrogen fixation
    • heterocysts
    • thickened cell walls containing large amounts of glycolipid, which impedes diffusion of oxygen in to the cell
    • heterocyst
    • concentric or reticulate pattern
  12. a.       Heterocysts are low in __, and they lack __, so the __ that occurs in these cells doesn’t result in the __      
                                                                                                                                          i.      The oxygen that is present is either rapidly __, a by-product of nitrogen fixation, or __
    1.       __, the enzyme that catalyzes the nitrogen-fixing reactions, is sensitive to the presence of oxygen, and nitrogen fixation is __
    • phycobilins
    • Photosystem II
    • cyclic photophosphorylation
    • evolution of oxygen
    • reduced by hydrogen
    • expelled through the wall of the heterocyst
    • Nitrogenase
    • anaerobic
  13. a.       __have small __connections—__—with adjacent vegetative cells
    2.       The products of __ are transported through the __from the __to the vegetative cells, and the products of photosynthesis move in the __ through these same connections, from the __ to the __.
    • Heterocysts 
    • plasmodesmatal 
    • microplasmodesmata
    • nitrogen fixation
    • microplasmodesmata 
    • heterocyst
    • opposite direction
    • vegetative cells to the heterocyst
  14. 1.       Among cy. that fix nitrogen are free-living species such as __, which lives in certain __
    a.       They account for ¼ of the total __ there
    2.       __cy. are also important in __
    a.       In Asia, they helped with growing rice without fertilizers
                                                                                                                                          i.      Members of the genus Anabaena often occur in association with the small, floating water fern Azolla, which forms masses on __
    • Trichodesmium
    • tropical oceans
    • nitrogen fixed
    • Symbiotic 
    • nitrogen fixation
    • rice paddles
  15.                                                               i.      Cy. occur as __within the bodies of a vast number of species: amoebas, sponges, etc. and also act photosynthetically in lichens
    1.       Some __cy. lack a __, in which case they function as __
    2.       __ cy. divides at the same time as its host cell by  a process similar to __
                                                                ii.      In addition to __, some cy. form resistant spores called __, which are enlarged cells surrounded by thickened envelopes
    1.       They are resistant to heat and drought and thus allow the cyanobacterium to survive during unfavorable periods
    • symbionts 
    • symbiotic 
    • cell wall
    • chloroplasts
    • Symbiotic 
    • chloroplast division
    • heterocysts
    • akinetes
  16. a.       Prochlorophytes contain Chlorophylls a and b and Carotenoids
                                                                  i.      The __are a group of photosynthetic bacteria with __ and __, but no __.
    1.       Only three discovered: What are they?
    • prochlorophyes 
    • chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids, but no phycobilins

    • prochloron
    • prochorococcs
    • prochlorothrix
  17. Prochloron
    • a.       found only along tropical seashores symbiotically within colonial sea squirts
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Spherical cells and extensive thylakoid system
  18. Prochlorococcus
    smallest photosynthetic organism with smallest genome of any photosynthetic cell and most numerous photosynthetic organism on Earth; found in mineral-poor oceans and from surface down to euphotic zone (zone where enough light penetrates for photosynthesis to occur
  19. Prochlorothrix
    a.       filamentous and found growing in shallow lakes in Netherlands
  20. a.       Purple and green Bacteria and Photosynthesis
                                                                  i.      Represent second major group of __after cy.
    1.       The overall __ and the __ used by these bacteria differ from __ and __.
    • photosynthetic bacteria 
    • photosynthetic process
    • photosynthetic pigments
    • cy. and prochlorophytes
  21. What is the difference between PnG bacteria and Prochlorophytes and Cy.
    • a.       Whereas cy. and prochlorophytes produce oxygen during photosynthesis,, the ‘p & g’ bacateria don’t
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      They grow in light only under anaerobic conditions because pigment synthesis is represented by oxygen
  22. Differences in photosynthesis
    cy: employ chlorophyll a and two PS's in photosynthesis

    • Prochlorophytes have chlorophylls a and b and two photosystems
    • P and G bacteria: use several different types of bacteriochlorophyll, which differ in certain respects from chlorophyll, and have only one photosystem
  23. Purple and green bacteria
    a.       The __are ancestors of individual __—__
                                                                                                                                          i.      Unlike p & g bacteria, photosynthetic autotrophs (plants and algae), as well as cy. and prochlorophytes, have __
    • photosystems 
    • Photosystem II and Photosystem I
    • both photosystems
  24.                                                               i.      Colors characteristic of photosynthetic bacteria are associated with the presence of __ that function in photosynthesis
    1.       In two groups of purple bacteria= __
    2.       In cy., the pigments are __, which aren’t in p & g bacteria
                                                                ii.      Purple and green bacteria are subdivided into those that __
    1.       __plays same role in photosynthesis that water does 
    • accessory pigments
    • yellow and red carotenoids
    • red and blue phycobilins
    • use mostly sulfur compounds as electron donors and those that do not
    • Sulfur
  25.                                                               i.      Purple nonsulfur and green nonsulfur bacteria, which are able to use __ at only low levels, also use organic compounds as __
    1.       These compounds are fatty acids, alcohols, etc.
    • hydrogen sulfide
    • electron donors
  26. 1.       Because of their requirement for __or a similar substrate, the purple sulfur and green sulfur bacteria can grow only in habitats containing large amounts of __, recognizable by the sulfurous odor
    a.       In these bacteria, __ may accumulate as deposits within the cell

    decaying organic material

    elemental sulfur