1.1.1

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Author:
efrain12
ID:
257665
Filename:
1.1.1
Updated:
2014-01-21 10:09:43
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Social Psych
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Description:
Social Psychology as a Scientific discipline
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  1. What are the 5 goals of Social Psychology?
    -Describe social behavior

    -predict behavior

    -causal analysis

    -application

    -theory building
  2. goals of social psychology) Prediction
    what/when behavior will occur
  3. goals of social psychology) Causal Analysis
    • explain social behavior
    • *watching violent tv causes violence
  4. goals of social psychology) Application
    solving everyday problems
  5. goals of social psychology) Theory Building
    helps us understand a broad range of behaviors
  6. 2 ways that social psychology proceeds?
    -reliance on scientific method

    -psychology is a science and scientific because it adheres to scientific method and values
  7. What are the 4 science values psychology proceeds by?
    -accuracy

    -objectivity

    -skepticism

    -open-mindness
  8. examples of aphorisms
    -birds of a feather flock together

    -opposites attract
  9. What are the 3 downsides of folk wisdom?
    -too much room for contradiction

    -difficult to determine which 2 conflicting views is correct

    • -prone to errors
    • *fails to take situational details into account
  10. What does the scientific approach buy us? (2)
    -attempts to be unbiasedĀ 

    -attempts to rule out alternative explanations

    ***science relies on rigorous, systematic observation
  11. What are the 3 major distinctions between research methods?
    -observational

    -correlational

    -experimental
  12. 3 research methods) Observational:
    systematic observation and measurement of behavior
  13. 3 research methods) 3 characteristics of observational
    -people observed in natural state

    -behavior is described

    -limited ability to test hypothesis or theories
  14. 3 research methods) 4 limits of observational
    • -certain kinds of behavior are difficult to observe
    • *they may occur in private

    -it is confined to one particular group, setting, and activity

    • -potential for bias
    • *interjudge reliability

    -describes patterns of behavior but not conducive for understanding relationships between variables
  15. 3 research methods) COrrelational:
    passively observing the relationship between 2 or more variables
  16. 3 research methods) 2 characteristics of correlational method
    -nothing is manipulated

    -survey research
  17. 3 research methods) Positive correlation:
    indicate that an increase in one variable is associated with an increase in the other
  18. 3 research methods) 2 advantages of correlational method
    -can study problems where it is difficult or unethical to manipulate variables

    -efficient
  19. 3 research methods) 2 disadvantages of correlational method
    -correlation does not equal causation

    • -there might be 3 explanations for any causations
    • *X caused Y, Y caused X, Some 3rd variable caused both
  20. 3 research methods) Experimental method:
    the researcher creates situation by manipulating some elements while keeping the rest constant
  21. 3 research methods) Experimental-Hypothesis:
    idea about causal relationship between variables
  22. 3 research methods) Experimental- Independent variable (2)
    -hypothesized causeĀ 

    -thing that is being manipulated
  23. 3 research methods) Experimental- Dependent Variable (2)
    -hypothesized effect

    -thing that is being measured
  24. 3 research methods)2 advantages of experimental method
    -can draw causal conclusions

    -allows us to test specific hypothesis
  25. 3 research methods) Disadvantages of experimental method (2)
    -hard to generalize to larger population

    -not all hypothesis of interest can be tested
  26. What are the 6 ethical principles?
    -avoid mental and emotional harm

    -evaluate the ethic acceptability of research

    -obtain informed consent and debrief

    • -deception may be used as a last resort
    • *if it is used, then full debriefing is required

    -participants should know they are free to withdraw at any point

    -strict confidentiality
  27. 3 potential issues using experimental research
    -experimenter bias

    -demand characteristics

    - random assignment
  28. potential issues with experimental research) Demand characteristics
    features of an experimental situation suggests to participants how they should behave or respond
  29. What is internal validity?
    to what extent are you sure that your IV is the ONLY cause for the change in your DV
  30. 2 ways to increase internal validity
    -random assignment

    -keep everything constant but IV
  31. What is external validity?
    stability and generalizability of your findings across people and situations

    • *mundane realism
    • *psychological realism
  32. external validity- Mundane realism
    extend to which experiment is similar to real-life situation
  33. external validity- Psychological realism
    -extend to which psychological process triggered during an experiment are similar to those that occur in everyday life
  34. Construct validity:
    the extent to which operationalization of the variables truly captures the constructs
  35. What are conceptual variables?
    • construct or abstract idea that researcher is interested in
    • *happiness
  36. Operational variables
    • how the conceptual variable is actually operationalized or measured
    • *ex) counting number of smiles; asking from 1-5 how happy are you
  37. What is a factorial experimental design?
    research designs that have more than one IV

    • *main effect: effect one one IV on the DV
    • *interaction: the way that one IV affcts the DV, depending on the level of the other IV

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