Anatomy 1.txt

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  1. Integumentary System
    -skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat glands)

    -protects body, prevents water loss, thermoregulation
  2. Skeletal System
    -bones, cartilage, ligaments

    -support for body, protects internal organs, mineral storage, production of blood cells
  3. Muscular System
    -voluntary (skeletal) muscles

    -movement of body, heat production
  4. Nervous System
    -brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia

    -receives and integrates sensory information, stores memories, formulates and outputs responses
  5. Endocrine System
    -endocrine glands (secrete hormones into blood)

    -regulate metabolism, body growth, and sexual development; maintain optimal internal body environment (homeostasis)
  6. Cardiovascular System
    -heart and blood vessels

    -transport of O2 and CO2, nutrients, metabolic waste, hormones
  7. Lymphatic/Immune System
    -lymph vessels and nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus

    -filter blood/lymph, protects against disease
  8. Respiratory System
    -lung and air passageways (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi

    -supplies and exchanges O2/CO2 with blood, acid/base regulation
  9. Digestive System
    -oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands, pancreas, liver

    -breaks down food into nutrient molecules, absorbs nutrients
  10. Urinary System
    -kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

    -filters blood to remove metabolic waste, acid/base balance
  11. Reproductive System
    -testes, penis, glands (male); ovaries, uterus, vagina (female)

    -hormone and germ cell production; fetal development
  12. Anatomical Position
    -feet together, upright, facing forward, palms forward, thumbs pointing lateral, upper limbs at the side
  13. Sagittal Plane
    -right and left halves
  14. Coronal Plane
    -frontal plane

    -anterior and posterior halves
  15. Horizontal Plane
    -transverse plane

    -superior and inferior parts
  16. Superior (Cranial)
    -towards the head
  17. Inferior (Caudal)
    -towards the feet (or tail)
  18. Anterior (Ventral)
    -front (belly) side
  19. Posterior (Dorsal)
    -back side
  20. Medial
    -towards the mid-line
  21. Lateral
    -away from the the mid-line
  22. Proximal
    -close to base of limb
  23. Distal
    -away from base of limb
  24. Superficial
    -close to the body surface
  25. Deep
    -away from body surface
  26. Skin
    -epidermis and dermis
  27. Epidermis
    -many layers of epithelial cells

    -surface cells are dead
  28. Dermis
    -dense connective tissue, anchors epidermis to body

    -contains blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles
  29. Superficial Fascia
    -loose, fatty, subcutaneous connective tissue layer

    -anchors skin to body, carries blood vessels and cutaneous nerves to skin, has superficial veins
  30. Deep Investing Fascia
    -dense connective tissue that surrounds all body regions

    -anchors to various bones
  31. Intermuscular Septum
    -connective tissue that connects deep investing fascia to bone, in limbs only

    -anchors, subdivides into anatomical compartments
  32. Retinaculum
    -localized thickening of deep investing fascia, covers tendons where they cross wrist or ankle joint

    -helps hold down and prevent bowstrings
  33. Axial Skeleton
    -skull, rib cage (12 pairs ribs), sternum, vertebral column (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar), intervertebral disks, sacrum ( 5 fused), and coccyx (4 fused)
  34. Appendicular Skeleton
    -limb bones plus girdle bones
  35. Pelvic Girdle
    -hip bones, attach lower limb to sacrum
  36. Pectoral Girdle
    -clavicle and scapula, attach upper limb to sternum
  37. Pelvis
    -hip bones, sacrum, and coccyx
  38. Gluteal Region
    -area posterior to hip joint
  39. Thigh
    -lower limb between hip and knee
  40. Popliteal Fossa
    -depression on backside of knee joint
  41. Leg
    -lower limb between knee and ankle
  42. Dorsum
    -top of foot
  43. Plantar Surface
    -bottom (sole) of foot
  44. Hip Bone
    -fusion of pubis, ischium, and ilium
  45. Patella
    -sesamoid bone, protects tendon of quadriceps femoris m.

    -articulates with distal end of femur
  46. Tibia
    -medial, weight bearing

    -medial malleolus
  47. Fibula
    -lateral, not weight bearing

  48. Interosseous Membrane
    -between tibia and fibula, dense connective tissue layer
  49. Gluteal Fascia
    -covers muscles of posterior and lateral hip regions
  50. Fascia Lata
    -covers thigh region

    -attached superiorly to inguinal ligament, iliac crest, posterior sacrum, and ischiopubic ramus

    -attached inferiorly to medial and lateral epicondyles of femur, medial and lateral condyles of tibia, tibial tuberosity of tibia, and head of fibula

    -3 intermuscular septa, attach to linea aspera (anterior, medial, and posterior thigh compartments)
  51. Inguinal Ligament
    -connective tissue that spans between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle
  52. Iliotibial Tract
    -lateral portion of fascia lata that is greatly thickened

    -attaches superiorly to iliac crest and inferiorly at lateral condyle of the tibia

    -anchored to femur by the later intermuscular septum (attaches to linea aspera)
  53. Agonist Muscle
    -primary muscle to generate a particular movement
  54. Antagonist Muscle
    -opposite action to agonist muscle
  55. Synergist Muscle
    -assists agonist muscle via direct (same action, additional strength) or indirect (stabilize/immobilize) assistance
  56. Origin
    -most proximal, medial, or less movable attachment point of a muscle
  57. Insertion
    -more distal, lateral, or more movable attachment point of a muscle
  58. Tendon
    -strong connective tissue

    -connects muscle to bone, skin, or muscle
  59. Aponeurosis
    -broad, flat tendon
  60. Sphincter
    -circular muscular structure, muscle inserts on itself

    -contraction reduces size of opening, control passage of material
  61. Raphe
    -line where two muscles insert onto each other
  62. Flexion - Extension
    -movements in the sagittal plane
  63. Abduction - Adduction
    -movements in the coronal plane
  64. Abduction
    -away from mid-line
  65. Adduction
    -towards mid-line
  66. Medial - Lateral Rotation
    -rotation around long axis

    -medial (internal) rotation, towards mid-line

    -lateral (external) rotation, away from mid-line
  67. Dorsiflexion
    -lift ball of foot off ground
  68. Plantar Flexion
    -lift heel of foot off ground
  69. Eversion
    -intertarsal joints

    -sole of foot away from mid-line
  70. Inversion
    -intertarsal joints

    -sole of foot towards mid-line
  71. Hip Joint
    -head of femur articulates with acetabulum

    -ball and socket, triaxial joint
  72. Knee Joint
    -condyles of femur articulate with condyles of tibia

    -hinge, uniaxial joint (flexion-extension)
  73. Ankle Joint
    -talus bones of foot articulate with distal ends of tibia and fibula

    -talus held in place by medial and lateral malleolus

    -uniaxial joint (dorsiflexion-plantar flexion)
  74. Intertarsal Joints
    -allow for eversion-inversion
  75. Gluteus Maximus m.
    origin: posterior iliac crest, posterior superior iliac spine, posterior sacrum

    insertion: gluteal tuberosity of the femur (25%) and iliotibial tract of the fascia lata (75%)

    innerv: Inferior Gluteal n.

    action: primary extensor of the thigh at the hip joint
  76. Gluteus Medius m.
    origin: lateral surface of ilium

    insertion: greater trochanter of the femur

    innerv: Superior Gluteal n.

    action: abducts thigh at the hip joint
  77. Gluteus Minimus m.
    origin: lateral surface of ilium

    insertion: greater trochanter of the femur

    innerv: Superior Gluteal n.

    action: abducts thigh at the hip joint
  78. Tensor Fasciae Latae m.
    origin: anterior superior iliac spine

    insertion: iliotibial tract

    innerv: Superior Gluteal n.

    action: extends knee, stabilizes knee joint
  79. Piriformis m.
    -key landmark muscle

    origin: anterior surface of sacrum

    insertion: greater trochanter of femur


    action: lateral rotator of the thigh
  80. Obturator Internus m.
    -exits pelvis via lesser sciatic foramen

    origin: internal margins of obturator foramen

    insertion: greater trochanter of the femur


    action: lateral rotator of the thigh
  81. Superior and Inferior Gemellus m.
    • origin: superior-external pelvis just above lesser sciatic notch
    • inferior-external pelvis just below lesser sciatic notch

    insertion: greater trochanter of the femur w/ obturator internus m.


    action: lateral rotators of the thigh
  82. Quadratus Femoris m.
    origin: ischial tuberosity

    insertion: greater trochanter of the femur


    action: lateral rotator of the thigh
  83. Obturator Externus m.
    origin: external surface of obturator foramen

    insertion: greater trochanter of the femur

    innerv: Obturator n.

    action: lateral rotator of the thigh
  84. Iliacus m.
    origin: iliac fossa

    innerv: Femoral n.
  85. Psoas Major m.
    origin: lumbar vertebrae
  86. Iliopsoas m.
    -fusion of psoas major m. and iliacus m.

    -changes name as passes under inguinal ligament

    insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur

    action: primary flexor of the thigh at the hip joint
Card Set:
Anatomy 1.txt
2014-01-22 03:51:58
Lower Limb

Anatomy Lower Limb
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