VIVA examination - promoting normality in complex situation, heading and associated references
Changing Childbirth (1993)
Maternity Matters (2007)
NMC Code (2008)
HB Levels UP
Active - OP position
Optimal Fetal Positioning
JEAN SUTTON (1996) - all 4's, birth ball, leaning forward, lying on side.
Birth and Beyond (2009) & Birth plans - leads to better birth satisfaction.
Ford et al (2009)
Goodman et al (2004) - increased control leads to better birth experience/satisfaction - better postnatal recovery, bonding/attachment, reduced PND.
PURPOSE OF PAIN
LEAP and ANDERSON (2008)
Working with Pain - transition/rite of passage, heightens joy, clues as to progress, triggers neuro-hormonal cascade - endorphins - bodies own pain killers
Fergusons Reflex - Dance of labour
HODNETT, DOWNE and WALSH (2012) - homely environment, lights dimmed, hospital equipment disguised, bed not focus, sensory stimulation. Affects care givers behaviour as well. Increased birth satisfaction and NVD rate.
Kitzinger (2000) -
Rossen (2004) - care by known, untrained woman was most effectiveoxytocin released in women exposed to stress triggers tending and befriending behavour
HODNETT et al (2011) - reduced CS, analgesia, assisted births, better APGAR scores, shorter labour length and positive birth experience.
Lawrence et al (2013)
Gravity and maximises outlet, help resolve op position, shorter 1st and 2nd stage, reduced fetal distress, reduced cs rates, less need epidural, less assisted births
Cluett & Burns (2009) - no evidence re VBAC in water but reduced CS, epidural, increased satisfaction
Cluett (2004) - beneficial for dystocia in labour
Touch - massage
Sexual Expression - Kitzinger
Singata et al (2013)
shows no benefit or harm for woman at low risk of complication - no studies looked specifically at woman at high risk so no evidence to support restrictions of intake.
RCOG (2007) & NICE (2011) - recommends due to risk of uterine rupture, abnormal ctg present in 55-87% of these. Consider alternative observations?
ALFIREVIC (2013) - reduced seizures but increased risk of CS and assisted delivery.
Anim-Somuah (2011) - epidural increases length of 2nd stage, oxytocin augmentation and instrumental
BETTANY-SALTIKOV (2006) - valsalva should be discontinued, negative effects on fetal heart and perineum. No benefit other than slightly shorter 2nd stage.
Delayed Cord Clamping
Physiological 3rd stage
McDONALD et al (2013) - increases early haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores in infants. Increased risk of jaundice
BEGLEY et al (2011) - if low risk, no statistically significant difference in major pph.
SKIN TO SKIN
MOORE et al (2013) - improved breastfeeding outcomes, keeps baby warm, stimulates oxytocin, regulates heart, decrease infant crying, promote bonding and attachment.