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- Changing Childbirth (1993)
- Maternity Matters (2007)
- NMC Code (2008)
- HB Levels UP
- BMI down
- Active - OP position
Optimal Fetal Positioning
JEAN SUTTON (1996) - all 4's, birth ball, leaning forward, lying on side.
Birth and Beyond (2009) & Birth plans - leads to better birth satisfaction.
- Ford et al (2009)
- Goodman et al (2004) - increased control leads to better birth experience/satisfaction - better postnatal recovery, bonding/attachment, reduced PND.
PURPOSE OF PAIN
- LEAP and ANDERSON (2008)
- Working with Pain - transition/rite of passage, heightens joy, clues as to progress, triggers neuro-hormonal cascade - endorphins - bodies own pain killers
- Odent (2001)
- Buckley (2010
Fergusons Reflex - Dance of labour
HODNETT, DOWNE and WALSH (2012) - homely environment, lights dimmed, hospital equipment disguised, bed not focus, sensory stimulation. Affects care givers behaviour as well. Increased birth satisfaction and NVD rate.
Kitzinger (2000) -
Rossen (2004) - care by known, untrained woman was most effectiveoxytocin released in women exposed to stress triggers tending and befriending behavour
HODNETT et al (2011) - reduced CS, analgesia, assisted births, better APGAR scores, shorter labour length and positive birth experience.
- Lawrence et al (2013)
- Gravity and maximises outlet, help resolve op position, shorter 1st and 2nd stage, reduced fetal distress, reduced cs rates, less need epidural, less assisted births
Cluett & Burns (2009) - no evidence re VBAC in water but reduced CS, epidural, increased satisfaction
Cluett (2004) - beneficial for dystocia in labour
- Hypnobirthing, music
- Touch - massage
- Sexual Expression - Kitzinger
- Singata et al (2013)
- shows no benefit or harm for woman at low risk of complication - no studies looked specifically at woman at high risk so no evidence to support restrictions of intake.
RCOG (2007) & NICE (2011) - recommends due to risk of uterine rupture, abnormal ctg present in 55-87% of these. Consider alternative observations?
ALFIREVIC (2013) - reduced seizures but increased risk of CS and assisted delivery.
Anim-Somuah (2011) - epidural increases length of 2nd stage, oxytocin augmentation and instrumental
BETTANY-SALTIKOV (2006) - valsalva should be discontinued, negative effects on fetal heart and perineum. No benefit other than slightly shorter 2nd stage.
Delayed Cord Clamping
Physiological 3rd stage
- McDONALD et al (2013) - increases early haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores in infants. Increased risk of jaundice
- BEGLEY et al (2011) - if low risk, no statistically significant difference in major pph.
SKIN TO SKIN
MOORE et al (2013) - improved breastfeeding outcomes, keeps baby warm, stimulates oxytocin, regulates heart, decrease infant crying, promote bonding and attachment.