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four levels of organization in vertebrate body
- organ systems
diagram of organization of vertebrate body
Dorsal Body cavity
forms within skull and vertebrae
Ventral body cavity
bounded by the rib cage and the vertebral column
diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity in to what two cavities?
- Thoracic cavity
- Abdominopelvic cavity
- located anteriorly in the ventral body cavity
- contains the heart and lungs
- located posteriorly in the ventral body cavity
- contains most organs
what 3 sub cavities are found in the abdominopelvic cavity?
- peritoneal cavity- coelomic space
- pericardial cavity- around the heart
- pleural cavity- around the lungs
Groups of cells similar in structure and function are organized into ______
what are the 3 germ layers (from inner most to outer) ?
- endoderm- inner
- ectoderm- outer
how many primary tissues do adult verterbrates have and what are they?
Epithelium (epithelial tissue)
- covers every major surface of the vertebrate body
- derived from all three germ layers
- provides a barrier to facilitate/impede substances
- remarkable regenerative powers
epithelial tissue attach to underlying connective tissues. what are the terms for the two "sides" of the attached tissue?
- Basal surface- secured side (attached to basement membrane)
- Apical surface- free side
What are the two designations of epithelial tissue based on layers?
- simple- one layer thick
- stratified- several cell layers thick
what are the types of epithelial tissue designations based on shape?
- squamous- shaped like tile on floor
- cuboidal- shaped like dice ; cube
- columnar- like a brick on end
stratified epithelial tissue is named according to feature of which layer?
top / uppermost layer
types of epithelial tissue and their names diagram
connection between the gland and the epithelial membrane is maintained as a duct. secretes to the outside. ex: sweat, saliva
- ductless glands- connections with the epithelium, from which they are derived, are lost during development.
- secrete hormones
what kind of tissue is the epidermis?
(layer, shape, etc)
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
contains water- resistant keratin
definition of "Connective tissue"
sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
non-living; fibers embedded in homogenous ground substance.
characteristics of connective tissue
- sparse population of cells scattered through an extra cellular matrix
- derive from embryonic mesoderm
- divided into two major classes
what are the two major classes of connective tissue?
- connective tissue proper
- special connective tissue
what are the two types of connective tissue proper?
what are the three types of special connective tissue?
explain why blood is considered a special connective tissue
definition of "Connective tissue"- platelets, lucacytes, etc all in plasma.
produce and secrete extracellular matrix
characteristics of loose connective tissue
- cells scattered within amorphous mass of proteins that form a ground substance
- strengthened by protein fibers
- example: adipose cells found in loose connective tissue
what kind of protein fibers strengthen loose connective tissue?
- collagen- strength
- elastin- elasticity
- reticulin- strength
what are the two types of dense connective tissue and what are their characteristics?
- regular- collagen fibers lined up in parallel; example: tendons and ligaments
- irregular- collagen fibers have many orientations; non parallel
What are 4 types of dense irregular tissue?
- organ coverings- capsules
- muscle coverings- epimysium
- nerve coverings- perineurium
- bone coverings- periosteum
What is "cartilage" ?
- specialized connective tissue in which fibers are laid down along the line of stress in long parallel arrays
- firm and flexible; ex: nose and ears
immature cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix
bone as a special connective tissue
many bones are first modeled as cartilage that then calcifies, thus chondrocytes are no longer able to obtain nutrients
- forms new bone
- secrete collagen organic matrix in which calcium phosphate is later deposited.
spaces where cells are encased in calcified bone matrix
concentric circles that are laid down around Haversian canals to construct bone
Haversian canals / systems
- packed together to form bone.
- contain nerve fibers and blood vessels
- osteocytes get nutrients from them
name types of cells found in blood
- Thrombocytes- platelets
- erythrocytes- contain hemoglobin
- leukocytes- have nuceli and mitochondria, but lack hemoglobin
- neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
- lymphocytes and monocytes
what are the tree types of muscle tissue?
what muscle tissues are striated?
- (striated transverse stripes)
which muscle fibers are under voluntary control and which are involuntary?
- contraction of skeletal muscle is under voluntary control
- cardiac and smooth muscle is generally involuntary.
found in organs of internal environment (viscera)
- usually attached to tendons or bones, so when muscles contract causes bones to move at the joints
- made up of long muscle "fibers" (multi nucleated cells)
- made up of highly ordered arrays of actin and myosin fibers
- composed of smaller, interconnected cells, each with a single nucleus
- interconnection appear as dark lines called intercalated disks
- gap junction in cardiac muscles
- electrical potential can move from one cell to another
- enable cardiac muscles to form single functioning unit- myocardium
cells include neurons and neuroglia
3 parts of neurons
- cell body- contains the nucleus
- dendrites- highly branched extensions
- axon-single cytoplasmic extension
what does the cell body contain?
what is a dendrite and what is its function
highly branched extensions of neuron. It receives information and conducts electrical impulses toward the cell body
what is an axon and what is its function?
single cytoplasmic extension of neuron. Conducts impulses away from cell body (to another place)
what do neuroglia do?
support and insulate neurons and eliminate foreign materials in and around neurons
what is a myelin sheath?
insulating covering of neuroglia cells wrapped around axons
what are the nodes of Ranvier
separate adjacent neuroglia myelin sheath cells.
two divisions of the nervous system
- central nervous system- includes the brain and spinal cord
- peripheral nervous system- includes nerves and ganglia
What are the three organ systems that detect external stimuli and coordinate the body's responses?
Nervous, sensory, and endocrine systems
which organ system involves support and movement?
musculoskeletal system- consists of two interrelated organ systems
Which four organ systems regulate and maintain the body's chemistry
digestive, circulatory, respiratory, and urinary systems
Which two organ systems are involved in defense?
- integumentary- skin
The biological continuity of vertebrates is the province of the _____ _____
The dynamic constancy of the internal environment is called _____
To maintain internal constancy, the vertebrate body uses ____ _____ mechanisms
what to sensors do to maintain homeostasis
sensors (cells or membrane receptors) detect changing conditions
where does the information picked up by sensors in homeostasis go?
Information is fed to an integrating center, also called a comparator. the comparator compares conditions to a set point
If a deviation in homeostasis is detected, a message is sent to an _____
produce heat from within
have a "push-pull relationship"
- mechanisms that enhance or continuate
- change. ex: blood clotting, contractions
the ratio of the reaction rates at two temperatures that differ by 10 C
Body heat =
heat produces +heat transferred
4 methods of heat transfer
- radiation- by electromagnetic radiation
- conduction-directly between two objects
- convection- by the movement of gas or liquid
- evaporation-conversion of water to gas
regulate their body temperature about a set point. Also called "warm-blooded"
allow their body temperature to conform to the environment. Also called "cold-blooded"
Use metabolism to generate body heat and maintain temperature above ambient temperature. (same as homeotherms)
Do not use metabolism to produce heat and have body temperature that conforms to ambient temperature (same as Poikilotherms)
falls between Endotherm and Ectotherm
countercurrent heat exchange
warm blood pumped from within the body in arteries warms the cooler blood returning from the outer skin in veins
increases blood flow, thereby increasing heat dissipation
- decreases blood flow, thus limiting heat loss
- ex:fingers get cold
which size animal has higher metabolic rates per unit body mass?
smaller animals: small endotherms in cold environments require significant insulation to maintain their body temperature.
- use of normal energy metabolism to produce heat
- shivering thermogenesis- using muscles to produce heat
- nonshivering thermogenesis- alters fat metabolism
heat losing center
located in the hypothalamus
heat promoting center
in the hypothalamus; stimulated by a drop in body temperature
substances that cause a fever
a state of dormancy produced by a reduction in both metabolic rate and body temperature
an extreme state in which torpor lasts for weeks or months