Module 1 - Basics of Nutrition
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MO: What is nutrition?
- Nutrition is a science:
- a) Focused on the interactions between living organisms and their (living) food
- b) Includes the study of the biological processes used in consuming food and our bodys ability to use the nutrients contained in food.
MO: What are the six classes of nutrients?
MO: What roles does water play in the body?
- Improves oxygen delivery to cells
- Transports nutrients
- Cushions organs, bones & joints
- Lubricates joints
- Enables cellular hydration
- Moistens air for easier respiration
- Aids in detoxification (removes wastes and flushes toxins)
- Regulates body temperature
- Prevents tissues from sticking (massage example)
- Improves cell-to-cell communications
- Maintains normal electrical properties of cells
MO: What roles do fats play in the body?
- Provide a source of energy
- Are required for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E & K
- Are required for adequate use of proteins
- Provide lining that protects organs
- Slow down absorption of food for better energy regulation and nutrient absorption
- Building blocks for hormones
- Building blocks for healthy cell membranes
- Make food taste good
MO: What roles do proteins play in the body?
- Building blocks for ENZYMES: Protein molecules that are the managers and catalysts for all biochemical processes
- Building blocks for HEMOGLOBIN: Specialized proteins in the form of red blood cells that carry oxygen
- Building blocks for ANTIBODIES: Proteins that help fight infection
- Building blocks for HORMONES: Proteins that regulate our metabolism and almost every function in the body.
- Building blocks for NEUROTRANSMITTERS: The brain chemicals that communicate information throughout our brain and body
MO: What roles do carbohydrates play in the body?
- Provide fuel for the brain
- Provide quick source of energy for the muscles
- Help regulate protein & fat metabolism
- Provide a source of fiber, which helps with regular elimination of waste materials
- Along with proteins and fats, carbohydrates:
- Help fight infections
- Promote growth of body tissues such as bones and skin
- Lubricate the joints
MO: What roles do minerals play in the body?
- Act as cofactors for enzyme reactions
- Maintain pH balance in the body
- Maintain osmotic pressure
- Facilitate transfer of nutrients across cell membranes
- Maintain proper nerve conduction
- Contract and relax muscles
- Regulate tissue growth
- Provide structural and functional support
MO: What roles do vitamins play in the body?
- Function primarily as coenzymes (helpers) in metabolism: interact with our cell enzymes to regulate a variety of essential bodily functions. (They are crucial for many of our metabolic processes, to release energy from nutrients, and in building and maintaining bones, teeth, skin, blood and many other vital body tissues.)
- Essential for growth, vitality and health
- Helpful in digestion, elimination and resistance to disease
- Depletion can lead to a variety of specific nutrition disorders and general health problems.
MO: Describe three major milestones that led to the "modern" diet.
5 major milestones:
- 1. Agricultural revolution ~12K yrs. ago
- 2. Introduction of refined sugar ~400 yrs. ago
- 3. Industrial revolution 1800's
- 4. Food giants 1900's
- 5. WWII - increased need to preserve food; advances in chemistry led to development of synthetic fertilizers, herbicides & pesticides
- 6. Increase in food processing in '70's.
MO: Describe Dr. Pottenger's contributions to nutritional research.
The profound lessons of Pottenger's Study was not in the first-generation cats, but in the next two generations.
- The de-generation of those cats is a mirror image of our current social and health situation:
- – Structural deformity
- – Social stress
- – Allergies
- – Reproductive problems
Dr. Pottenger reversed the diets of the first and second processed milk cats.
It took four generations for the cats to return to normal.
MO: Describe Dr. Price's contributions to nutritional research.
- Dr. Price found that:
- There is a great variety of diets that are healthy.
- There are certain dietary laws that are inflexible and unchangeable:
- Must get the fat soluble factors from animal sources
- In order to be healthy, foods must be properly prepared and in their whole forms
- While the diets of healthy cultures varied greatly, there were several commonalities:
- 1. Contained no refined or denatured foods.
- 2. Used some type of animal products, with some raw.
- 3. Diets were four times as high in calcium and other minerals, and encompassed 10 times the amount of fat-soluble vitamins as the modern diet.
- 4. Included foods with high enzyme content.
- 5. Seeds, grains, and nuts were soaked, sprouted, fermented, or naturally leavened.
- 6. Fat content varied from 30-80% of total calories (only four percent from polyunsaturated fatty acids).
- 7. Contained nearly equal amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.
- 8. Contained some salt.
- 9. Made use of bones, usually as broth.
MO: What are the recommended amounts of macronutrients in the daily diet?
- 40% carbohydrates, 30% fats, and 30% protein.
- For water, as a general guideline, take body weight and divide it by two to determine the number of ounces to consume daily (120 lb. person should consume ~60oz. of water each day).
MO: What are some healthy sources of water?
- Body can produce about 8% of its daily needs through metabolic processes.
- Remaining 92% must be consumed through foods and beverages
- Pure, filtered water is best source.
MO: What are some healthy sources of fats?
- Raw, soaked nuts and seeds
- Raw, cold-pressed oils from nuts and seeds (flax, sesame, etc)
- Cold-pressed, extra virgin olive oil
- Saturated fats from healthy sources such as pastured animals, wild-caught fish, whole raw dairy, tropicals
AVOID: hydrogenated fats, partially hydrogenated fats, highly processed vegetable oils, fried foods
MO: What are some healthy sources of proteins?
- Grass-fed beef
- Wild Meats
- Organic, free-range poultry
- Whole, raw, or cultured dairy products
- Organic lamb
- Organic, free-range eggs
- Low-toxicity seafood
AVOID: Soy, Pasteurized/homogenized milk, Farmed seafood
MO: What are some healthy sources of carbohydrates?
- The majority of the carbohydrates should be low glycemic vegetables that are raw or lightly cooked.
- Include one to three fresh, whole fruits (not juice) each day, depending on sugar tolerance.
- Occasionally, include starchy carbs (whole grains, whole grain breads, potatoes, brown rice, etc). Try to keep the calorie intake of the starchy carbs to below 15%.
- Select organic, local and seasonal products whenever possible.
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